For other people named Maurice Wilkes, see Maurice Wilkes (disambiguation).
Sir Maurice Vincent WilkesFRSFREng (26 June 1913 – 29 November 2010) was a British computer scientist who designed and helped build the electronic delay storage automatic calculator (EDSAC), one of the earliest stored program computers and invented microprogramming, a method for using stored-program logic to operate the control unit of a central processing unit's circuits. At the time of his death, Wilkes was an Emeritus Professor of the University of Cambridge.
Early life, education, and military service
Wilkes was born in Dudley, Worcestershire, England and grew up in Stourbridge, West Midlands, England, where his father worked on the estate of the Earl of Dudley. He was educated at King Edward VI College, Stourbridge and during his school years he was introduced to amateur radio by his chemistry teacher.
He went on to read the Mathematical Tripos at St John's College, Cambridge from 1931–34, continuing to complete a PhD in physics on the topic of radio propagation of very long radio waves in the ionosphere in 1936. He was appointed to a junior faculty position of the University of Cambridge through which he was involved in the establishment of a computing laboratory. He was called up for military service during World War II and worked on radar at the Telecommunications Research Establishment (TRE), and in operational research.
Research and career
Initiation into electronic computing
In 1945, Wilkes was appointed as the second director of the University of Cambridge Mathematical Laboratory (later known as the Computer Laboratory).
The Cambridge laboratory initially had many different computing devices, including a differential analyser. One day Leslie Comrie visited Wilkes and lent him a copy of John von Neumann's prepress description of the EDVAC, a successor to the ENIAC under construction by Presper Eckert and John Mauchly at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering. He had to read it overnight because he had to return it and no photocopying facilities existed. He decided immediately that the document described the logical design of future computing machines, and that he wanted to be involved in the design and construction of such machines. In August 1946 Wilkes travelled by ship to the United States to enroll in the Moore School Lectures, of which he was only able to attend the final two weeks because of various travel delays. During the five-day return voyage to England, Wilkes sketched out in some detail the logical structure of the machine which would become EDSAC.
Since his laboratory had its own funding, he was immediately able to start work on a small practical machine, the Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (EDSAC), once back at Cambridge. He decided that his mandate was not to invent a better computer, but simply to make one available to the university. Therefore, his approach was relentlessly practical. He used only proven methods for constructing each part of the computer. The resulting computer was slower and smaller than other planned contemporary computers. However, his laboratory's computer was the second practical stored program computer to be completed, and operated successfully from May 1949, well over a year before the much larger and more complex EDVAC. In 1950, along with David Wheeler, Wilkes used EDSAC to solve a differential equation relating to gene frequencies in a paper by Ronald Fisher. This represents the first use of a computer for a problem in the field of biology.
Other computing developments
In 1951, he developed the concept of microprogramming from the realisation that the Central Processing Unit of a computer could be controlled by a miniature, highly specialised computer program in high-speed ROM. This concept greatly simplified CPU development. Microprogramming was first described at the University of Manchester Computer Inaugural Conference in 1951, then published in expanded form in IEEE Spectrum in 1955. This concept was implemented for the first time in EDSAC 2, which also used multiple identical "bit slices" to simplify design. Interchangeable, replaceable tube assemblies were used for each bit of the processor. The next computer for his laboratory was the Titan, a joint venture with Ferranti Ltd begun in 1963. It eventually supported the UK's first time-sharing system and provided wider access to computing resources in the university, including time-shared graphics systems for mechanical CAD.. Control Memory (CM) which is extremely used in today's computer was developed by using the concept of this Microprogramming.
A notable design feature of the Titan's operating system was that it provided controlled access based on the identity of the program, as well as or instead of, the identity of the user. It introduced the password encryption system used later by Unix. Its programming system also had an early version control system.
Wilkes is also credited with the idea of symbolic labels, macros and subroutine libraries. These are fundamental developments that made programming much easier and paved the way for high-level programming languages. Later, Wilkes worked on an early timesharing systems (now termed a multi-user operating system) and distributed computing. Toward the end of the 1960s, Wilkes also became interested in capability-based computing, and the laboratory assembled a unique computer, the Cambridge CAP.
In 1974 Wilkes encountered a Swiss data network (at Hasler AG) that used a ring topology to allocate time on the network. The laboratory initially used a prototype to share peripherals. Eventually, commercial partnerships were formed, and similar technology became widely available in England.
Awards, honours and leadership
He received a number of distinctions: he was a knight bachelor, Distinguished Fellow of the British Computer Society, a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering and a Fellow of the Royal Society. Wilkes received a number of distinctions: he was a knight bachelor, Distinguished Fellow of the British Computer Society, a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1956. He was a founder member of the British Computer Society (BCS) and its first president (1957–1960). Wilkes received the Turing Award in 1967, with the following citation: "Professor Wilkes is best known as the builder and designer of the EDSAC, the first computer with an internally stored program. Built in 1949, the EDSAC used a mercury delay line memory. He is also known as the author, with David Wheeler and Stanley Gill, of a volume on Preparation of Programs for Electronic Digital Computers in 1951, in which program libraries were effectively introduced." In 1968 he received the Harry H. Goode Memorial Award, with the following citation: "For his many original achievements in the computer field, both in engineering and software, and for his contributions to the growth of professional society activities and to international cooperation among computer professionals."
In 1972 Maurice Wilkes was awarded an honorary Doctor of Science by Newcastle University.
In 1980 he retired from his professorships and post as the head of the laboratory and joined the central engineering staff of Digital Equipment Corporation in Maynard, Massachusetts, USA.
He was awarded the Faraday Medal by the Institution of Electrical Engineers in 1981. The Maurice Wilkes Award, awarded annually for an outstanding contribution to computer architecture made by a young computer scientist or engineer, is named after him. In 1986, he returned to England, and became a member of Olivetti's Research Strategy Board. In 1987, he was awarded an Honorary Degree (Doctor of Science) by the University of Bath. In 1993 Wilkes was presented, by Cambridge University, with an honorary Doctor of Science degree. In 1994 he was inducted as a Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery. He was awarded the Mountbatten Medal in 1997 and in 2000 presented the inaugural Pinkerton Lecture. He was knighted in the 2000 New Year Honours List. In 2001, he was inducted as a Fellow of the Computer History Museum "for his contributions to computer technology, including early machine design, microprogramming, and the Cambridge Ring network." In 2002, Wilkes moved back to the Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge, as an Emeritus Professor.
In his memoirs Wilkes wrote:
I well remember when this realization first came on me with full force. The EDSAC was on the top floor of the building and the tape-punching and editing equipment one floor below. [...] It was on one of my journeys between the EDSAC room and the punching equipment that "hesitating at the angles of stairs" the realization came over me with full force that a good part of the remainder of my life was going to be spent in finding errors in my own programs.
Wilkes married Nina Twyman in 1947 who died in 2008. He died in November 2010 and was survived by his son, Anthony, and two daughters, Margaret and Helen.
- ^Wilkes, M. V. (1975). "Early computer developments at Cambridge: The EDSAC". Radio and Electronic Engineer. 45 (7): 332. doi:10.1049/ree.1975.0063.
- ^ abWilkes, Maurice (1951). "The EDSAC Computer". Proceedings of the Review of Electronic Digital Computers: 79. doi:10.1109/AFIPS.1951.13.
- ^ abWilkes, M. V. (1992). "Edsac 2". IEEE Annals of the History of Computing. 14 (4): 49–56. doi:10.1109/85.194055.
- ^ abWilkes, M. V. (1969). "The Growth of Interest in Microprogramming: A Literature Survey". ACM Computing Surveys. 1 (3): 139. doi:10.1145/356551.356553.
- ^Wilkes, M. V. (1996). "Computers then and now---part 2". Proceedings of the 1996 ACM 24th annual conference on Computer science - CSC '96. p. 115. doi:10.1145/228329.228342. ISBN 0897918282.
- ^Maurice V. Wilkes 2001 FellowArchived 3 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^Maurice Wilkes author profile page at the ACM Digital Library
- ^Maurice Wilkes at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
- ^Kay, Michael Howard (1976). Data independence in database management systems (PhD thesis). University of Cambridge. EThOS uk.bl.ethos.461558.
- ^Wegner, Peter (1968). Programming Languages, Information Structures, and Machine Organization (PhD thesis). University College London.
- ^Wheeler, David John (1951). Automatic Computing With EDSAC (PhD thesis). University of Cambridge. (subscription required)
- ^ abCampbell-Kelly, Martin (2014). "Sir Maurice Vincent Wilkes 26 June 1913 -- 29 November 2010". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. doi:10.1098/rsbm.2013.0020.
- ^"Father of British computing Sir Maurice Wilkes dies". BBC News. 30 November 2010. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
- ^ abcd"CV for Maurice V. Wilkes"(PDF). University of Cambridge. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
- ^"Professor Sir Maurice Wilkes". The Daily Telegraph. 30 November 2010. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
- ^"Maurice V. Wilkes – Short Biography". cl.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 30 November 2010.
- ^Wilkes, M. (2006). "What I Remember of the ENIAC". IEEE Annals of the History of Computing. 28 (2): 30–37. doi:10.1109/MAHC.2006.41.
- ^Campbell-Kelly, Martin; Aspray, William (2004), Computer : a history of the information machine (2nd ed.), Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, p. 89, ISBN 9780813342641
- ^Gene Frequencies in a Cline Determined by Selection and Diffusion, R. A. Fisher, Biometrics, Vol. 6, No. 4 (Dec., 1950), pp. 353–361
- ^Wilkes, M.; Kahn, H. J. (2003). "Tom Kilburn CBE FREng. 11 August 1921 - 17 January 2001". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 49: 283. doi:10.1098/rsbm.2003.0016.
- ^Wilkes, M. V. (1975). Time-sharing computer systems. London: Macdonald and Jane's. ISBN 0-444-19525-4.
- ^Wilkes, M. V. (1965). "Online time sharing—a very big step forward". Electronics and Power. 11 (6): 204. doi:10.1049/ep.1965.0166.
- ^Computer Pioneers by J. A. N. Lee - Maurice Vincent Wilkes
- ^Needham, R. M.; Wilkes, M. V. (1979). The Cambridge CAP computer and its operating system. Boston, Mass: North Holland. ISBN 0-444-00357-6.
- ^Maurice V. Wilkes at DBLP Bibliography Server
- ^List of publications from Microsoft Academic
- ^http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~history/Wilkes.html Biography of Maurice Wilkes
- ^https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2010/nov/30/sir-maurice-wilkes-obituary Obituary in The Guardian
- ^https://www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/maurice-wilkes-visionary-and-pioneering-doyen-of-british-computing-2147811.html Obituary in The Independent
- ^http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/technology-obituaries/8171435/Professor-Sir-Maurice-Wilkes.html Obituary in The Telegraph
- ^ abWilkes, M. V. (1985). Memoirs of a computer pioneer. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-23122-0.
- ^Automatic Digital Computers. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1956, 305 pages, QA76.W5 1956.
- ^Wilkes, Maurice (1966). A short introduction to numerical analysis. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-09412-7.
- ^Campbell-Kelly, Martin; Wilkes, Maurice Vincent; Wheeler, David Martyn; Gill, Stanley (1984). The Preparation of Programs for an Electronic Digital Computer (Charles Babbage Institute Reprint). Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-23118-2.
- ^CHM. "Maurice V. Wilkes — CHM Fellow Award Winner". Archived from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
- Oral history interview with David J. Wheeler, Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Wheeler was a research student under Wilkes at the University Mathematical Laboratory at Cambridge from 1948–51. Wheeler discusses the EDSAC project, the influence of EDSAC on the ILLIAC, the ORDVAC, and the IBM 701 computers, as well as visits to Cambridge by Douglas Hartree, Nelson Blackman (of ONR), Peter Naur, Aad van Wijngarden, Arthur van der Poel, Friedrich Bauer, and Louis Couffignal.
- Listen to an oral history interview with Maurice Wilkes – recorded in June 2010 for An Oral History of British Science at the British Library
Constitutional and Legal History
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———. Census of Law Books in Colonial Virginia. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1978.
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Fairman, Charles. Five Justices and the Electoral Commission of 1877. Supplement to vol. 7 of Oliver Wendell Holmes Devise History of the Supreme Court of the United States. New York: Macmillan, 1988.
———. Reconstruction and Reunion, 1864–1888, Part I and Part II. Vols. 6 and 7 of Oliver Wendell Holmes Devise History of the Supreme Court of the United States. New York: Macmillan, 1971, 1987.
Farrand, Max, ed. The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787. 4 vols. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1937. A supplemental fifth volume, edited by James Hutson, was published in 1987.
Fiss, Owen. Troubled Beginnings of the Modern State, 1888–1910. Vol. 8 of Oliver Wendell Holmes Devise History of the Supreme Court of the United States. New York: Macmillan, 1993.
Flaherty, David H., ed. Essays in the History of Early American Law. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1969.
Fleming, Donald, and Bernard Bailyn, eds. Law in American History. Perspectives in American History, vol. 6. Cambridge, Mass.: Charles Warren Center for Studies in American History, 1971.
Friedman, Lawrence M. A History of American Law. 2d ed. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1985.
Gilmore, Grant. The Ages of American Law. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977.
Ginger, Ann Fagan, and Eugene M. Tobin, eds. The National Lawyers Guild: From Roosevelt Through Reagan. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988.
Goebel, Julius, Jr. Antecedents and Beginnings to 1801. Vol. 1 of Oliver Wendell Holmes Devise History of the Supreme Court of the United States. New York: Macmillan, 1971.
Goebel, Julius, Jr., and Joseph H. Smith. The Law Practice of Alexander Hamilton. 5 vols. New York: Columbia University Press, 1964–81.
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Haines, Charles Grove. The Role of the Supreme Court in American Government and Politics, 1789–1835. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1944.
Haines, Charles Grove, and Foster Sherwood. The Role of the Supreme Court in American Government and Politics, 1835–1864. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1957.
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Hamlin, Paul. Legal Education in Colonial New York. New York: New York University, 1939; New York: Da Capo Press, 1970.
Haskins, George Lee. Law and Authority in Early Massachusetts. New York: Macmillan, 1960.
Haskins, George Lee, and Herbert A. Johnson. Foundations of Power: John Marshall, 1801–1815. Vol. 2 of Oliver Wendell Holmes Devise History of the Supreme Court of the United States. New York: Macmillan, 1981.
A History of the School of Law, Columbia University. New York: Columbia University Press, 1955.
Holst, H. von. The Constitutional and Political History of the United States, 1750–1861. 8 vols. Chicago: Callaghan, 1889.
Horwitz, Morton J. The Transformation of American Law, 1780–1860. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1977.
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Howe, Mark De Wolfe. The Garden and the Wilderness: Religion and Government in American Constitutional History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965.
Hurst, J. Willard. Law and Economic Growth: The Legal History of the Lumber Industry in Wisconsin, 1836–1915. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1964.
———. Law and Social Order in the United States. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1977.
———. Law and the Conditions of Freedom in the Nineteenth-Century United States. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1956.
———. The Legitimacy of the Business Corporation in the Law of the United States, 1780–1970. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1970.
Irons, Peter. The New Deal Lawyers. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982.
Johnson, John W. American Legal Culture, 1908–1940. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1981.
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———. The Strange Career of Legal Liberalism. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996.
Kammen, Michael. A Machine That Would Go of Itself: The Constitution in American Culture. New York: Knopf, 1986.
———. Sovereignty and Liberty: Constitutional Discourse in American Culture. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988.
Kelly, Alfred H., Winfred A. Harbison, and Herman Belz. The American Constitution: Its Origins and Development. 7th ed. New York: W. W. Norton, 1991.
Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution. 5 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.
Lutz, Donald S. Colonial Origins of the American Constitution: A Documentary History. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1998.
———. The Origins of American Constitutionalism. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1988.
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McDonald, Forrest. A Constitutional History of the United States. New York: Franklin Watts, 1982.
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———. Dispute and Conflict Resolution in Plymouth County, Massachusetts, 1725–1825. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1981.
Nelson, William E., and John Phillip Reid. The Literature of American Legal History. New York: Oceana, 1985.
Osgood, Russell K., ed. The History of the Law in Massachusetts: The Supreme Judicial Court, 1692–1992. Boston: Supreme Judicial Court Historical Society, 1992.
Pound, Roscoe. The Formative Era of American Law. Boston: Little, Brown, 1938.
———. The Lawyer from Antiquity to Modern Times: With Particular Reference to the Development of Bar Associations in the United States. St. Paul, Minn.: West Publishing, 1953.
Reid, John Phillip. Constitutional History of the American Revolution. 4 vols. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1983–91.
Ritchie, John. The First Hundred Years: A Short History of the School of Law of the University of Virginia for the Period 1826–1926. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1978.
Select Essays in Anglo-American Legal History. 3 vols. Boston: Little, Brown, 1907–9.
Sutherland, Arthur E. Constitutionalism in America. New York: Blaisdell Publishing, 1965.
———. The Law at Harvard: A History of Ideas and Men, 1817–1967. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967.
Swindler, William. Court and Constitution in the Twentieth Century. 3 vols. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1969–74.
Swisher, Carl Brent. American Constitutional Development. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1954.
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———. The Taney Period, 1836–1864. Vol. 5 of Oliver Wendell Holmes Devise History of the Supreme Court of the United States. New York: Macmillan, 1974.
Thayer, James Bradley. Legal Essays. Boston: Boston Book, 1908.
Thorpe, Francis Newton. The Constitutional History of the United States, 1765–1895. 3 vols. Chicago: Callaghan, 1901.
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———. A History of the American Bar. Boston: Little, Brown, 1911.
———. History of the Harvard Law School and of Early Legal Conditions in America. 3 vols. New York: Lewis Publishing, 1908.
———. The Making of the Constitution. Boston: Little, Brown, 1937.
———. The Supreme Court in United States History. 2 vols. Boston: Little, Brown, 1926.
White, G. Edward. Intervention and Detachment: Essays in Legal History and Jurisprudence. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
———. Patterns of American Legal Thought. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1978.
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Treatises and Textbooks
Baldwin, Henry. A General View of the Origin and Nature of the Constitution and Government of the United States. 1837. Reprint, New York: Da Capo Press, 1970.
Bledsoe, Albert Taylor. Is Jeff Davis a Traitor: Or Was Secession a Constitutional Right? Richmond, Va.: Hermitage Press, 1907.
Brownson, Orestes. The American Republic. New York: O’Shea, 1865.
Chipman, Nathaniel. Principles of Government: A Treatise on Free Institutions, Including the Constitution. Burlington, Vt.: Edward Smith, 1833.
Cooley, Thomas M. The General Principles of Constitutional Law in the United States of America. 3d ed. Boston: Little, Brown, 1898.
———. A Treatise on the Constitutional Limitations Which Rest upon the Legislative Power of the States of the American Union. Boston: Little, Brown, 1868.
———. A Treatise on the Law of Torts, or the Wrongs Which Arise Independent of Contract. Chicago: Callaghan, 1880.
Cooper, Thomas. Two Essays: 1. On the Foundation of Civil Government; 2. On the Constitution of the United States. Columbia, S.C.: Faust, 1826.
Corbin, Arthur L. Corbin on Contracts: A Comprehensive Treatise on the Rules of Contract Law. 7 vols. St. Paul: West Publishing, 1950–51.
Corwin, Edward S., et al., eds. The Constitution of the United States: Analysis and Interpretation. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1973 (and suppls.).
Dane, Nathan. A General Abridgement and Digest of American Law. 9 vols. Boston: Cummings, Hilliard, 1823–29.
Duer, William Alexander. A Course of Lectures on the Constitutional Jurisprudence of the United States. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1843.
DuPonceau, Peter. A Brief View of the Constitution of the United States. Philadelphia: E. G. Dorsey, 1834.
Gray, John Chipman. The Nature and Sources of the Law. New York: Columbia University Press, 1909.
Gunther, Gerald. Cases and Materials on Constitutional Law. 10th ed. Mineola, N.Y.: Foundation Press, 1980.
Hamilton, Alexander, John Jay and James Madison. The Federalist. New York: 1788, with numerous later editions.
Hoffman, David. A Course of Legal Study, Addressed to Students and the Profession Generally. 2d ed. 2 vols. in 1. Philadelphia: Thomas, Cowperthwait, 1846. Reprint, Buffalo: W. S. Hein, 1968.
———. Legal Outlines. Baltimore: J. Neal, 1836.
Jameson, John Alexander. A Treatise on Constitutional Conventions. Chicago: Callaghan, 1887.
Kent, James. Commentaries on American Law. 4 vols. 1826. Reprint, Buffalo: W. S. Hein, 1984.
Pomeroy, John Norton. An Introduction to the Constitutional Law of the United States. 5th ed., rev. and enl. Boston: Houghton, Osgood, 1880.
———. Remedies and Remedial Rights by Civil Action. Boston: Little, Brown, 1876.
Pritchett, C. Herman. The American Constitution. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968.
Rawle, William. A View of the Constitution of the United States of America. Philadelphia: Philip Nicklin, 1829.
Stephens, Alexander H. A Constitutional View of the Late War Between the States. 2 vols. Philadelphia: National Publishing, 1868.
Story, Joseph. Commentaries on the Conflict of Laws, Foreign and Domestic. Boston: Little, Brown, 1834.
———. Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States. 3 vols. Boston: Hilliard, Gray, 1833.
———. Commentaries on Equity Jurisprudence. 2 vols. Boston: Little, Brown, 1836.
Taylor, John. Construction Construed, and Constitutions Vindicated. Richmond, Va.: Shepherd and Pollard, 1820.
———. An Inquiry into the Principles and Policy of the Government of the United States. Fredericksburg, Va.: Green and Cady, 1814.
———. New Views of the Constitution of the United States. Washington City: Way and Gideon, 1823.
Tribe, Lawrence H. American Constitutional Law. 2d ed. Mineola, N.Y.: Foundation Press, 1988.
Tucker, St. George. “View of the Constitution.” Appendix to Blackstone’s Commentaries: with Notes of Reference. . . . 5 vols. Philadelphia: Birch and Small, 1803.
Tucker, John Randolph. The Constitution of the United States: A Critical Discussion of Its Genesis, Development, and Interpretation. 2 vols. Chicago: Callaghan, 1899.
Upshur, Abel Parker. A Brief Enquiry into the Nature and Character of Our Federal Government: Being a Review of Judge Story’s “Commentaries on the Constitution.” Petersburg, Va.: Edmund and Julian Ruffin, 1840.
Wigmore, John Henry. The Principles of Judicial Proof. Boston: Little, Brown, 1913.
———. Treatise on the Anglo-American System of Evidence in Trials at Common Law. 10 vols. Boston: Little, Brown, 1940.
Williston, Samuel A. The Law Governing Sales of Goods at Common Law and Under the Uniform Sales Act. Rev. ed. 4 vols. New York: Baker, Voorhis, 1948.
———. A Treatise on the Law of Contracts. Rev. ed. 9 vols. New York: Baker, Voorhis, 1936–45.