8 January 2012
From the narrative perspective, Julia Leigh’s Sleeping Beauty is about a university student, Lucy (Emily Browning), a loner who experiments occasionally with drugs and other self-destructive behavior, but is a hard worker in what seems like an endless list of jobs. While some of her jobs are typical, such as copy girl and waitress in a café, some are less conventional, such as test subject in a science lab. In addition, twice in the film Lucy solicits sexual activity from men in high-end bars (although the audience never sees the activity or Lucy receiving payment from the men). Moreover, one of Lucy’s most curious jobs is as nursemaid to a character named Birdmann. Birdmann is a drug addict whose physical condition deteriorates throughout the film. Ultimately, Lucy’s job, as it pertains to Birdmann, is to bring him food, alcohol, company (but never sex), and be at his side when he dies. Yet, regardless of working all these jobs and attending university, Lucy answers an ad in the paper for yet another job, one more bizarre than all the others.
According to Clara (Rachael Blake), the woman Lucy interviews with, the new job is silver-service in lingerie, meaning a formal, structured service position at high-end dinner parties. Clara makes it clear to Lucy, who she renames Sarah, that despite the sexual eroticism involved in these parties “[Lucy’s/Sarah’s] vagina will not be penetrated; [her] vagina is a temple.” Lucy does not see it that way, evident by her response, “My vagina is not a temple.” Inevitably, Lucy’s work as a silver-service lingerie girl is rewarded and she gets promoted, by Clara, to a new position, a Sleeping Beauty. As a Sleeping Beauty, Lucy must drink an elixir of drugged tea which puts her into a deep sleep. While asleep she is not allowed to know what happens to her, but Clara makes the same promise to her regarding vaginal penetration. Although Lucy remains in the dark, the audience sees that while she is asleep the elderly men from the silver-service party have their way with her unconscious body, but Clara’s promise is never broken; the men do not have sex with Lucy.
Ultimately, Lucy finds it unbearable not knowing what is happening to her while she is asleep, so before her next job Lucy hides a small surveillance camera in her mouth, and just as she is falling into her deep, drug-induced sleep she pulls the camera out and places it in the bedroom. Because of Lucy’s drug use mixes negatively with the strength of the drugged tea, she nearly dies during this final job and Clara must give her mouth-to-mouth resuscitation to wake her. When Lucy final comes to, she sees one of the elderly men from the party naked and dead in the bed with her. Overwhelmed, Lucy begins to let out a series of loud yells. The film’s final scene is the surveillance video Lucy shot. Because the man died, the only thing on the misleading video is Lucy and the elderly man lying still on the bed.
While watching Sleeping Beauty it seems strikingly clear its writer/director, Julia Leigh, was well versed in Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic work. A bold take on an oppressive fairytale, Leigh’s film, presented by New Zealand filmmaker Jane Campion, does not hold back, but does require a Freudian lens with which to read it.
In his career, Sigmund Freud developed a theory of psychosexual development; the first stage is the oral stage. In short, according to Freud, during the oral stage a human receives his/her first sexual stimulation and pleasure through the mouth, which is one of the major erogenous zones of the body. Ultimately, a person will pass through five stages of psychosexual development, ending at the genital stage. In this her first film, Julia Leigh uses the mouth, the first of Freud’s stages, continuously in Sleeping Beauty as a mirror for the vagina. The mouth is a motif in Sleeping Beauty, and, although there are no explicit sex scenes in the film, scenes in which the mouth plays a vital role represent the direct sexuality absent from the film. While Clara’s promise of no vaginal penetration holds true, Lucy has several sexual encounters in the film, including penetration, beginning with the opening scene.
Sleeping Beauty opens in a science lab where Lucy enters as a test subject for experimentation and research. As test subject, a male lab technician puts a long white tube inside Lucy’s mouth and down her throat. Read psychoanalytically, this act serves as a sexual encounter. Moreover, Lucy goes back to the lab later in the film and has the same encounter. Significantly, in both these encounters at the lab the technician is in control of the encounter.
Later in the film, when Lucy arrives for her first silver-service party, the woman in charge asks Lucy to go upstairs and match the color of her lipstick to the color of her labia. Leigh’s inclusion of this detail directly connects the mouth with the vagina in the film; thus, strengthening the psychoanalytic reading of the film. Lucy does not take the woman’s direction seriously, and when the woman notices the lipstick color Lucy selects is not a match she takes matters into her own hands. After looking to see the appropriate color, the woman applies the lipstick on Lucy herself. Unlike the scene in the lab, Lucy is not penetrated by the woman; instead, it is a homoerotic encounter. Yet, the woman, like the lab technician, forces herself on Lucy; the encounter is a violation.
During one of her jobs as a Sleeping Beauty, an elderly man, who is demeaning and revolting, climbs on top of the unconscious Lucy and, after slewing vulgarities, sticks his fingers into her mouth. This is penetration. Furthermore, this man sticks his tongue out and licks Lucy’s face. Reading the film on the psychoanalytic slant, this is not just a sexual act, but also a rape. Again, Lucy has absolute no power in the acts being forced upon her.
It is important to note the mouth is also a conveyor of voice, and Leigh pays special attention to voice in Sleeping Beauty. In addition to serving as a mirror for the vagina, the mouth also offers hushed, muffled, and monotone voices. It is often difficult to make out what characters are saying. As a viewer this gets frustrating; however the hushed voices become retrospectively clear when the film reaches its powerful climax.
When Lucy awakes, after receiving the mouth-to-mouth resuscitation from Clara, and sees the dead man lying next to her she lets out a series of piercing yells. Finally, Lucy puts a stop to being penetrated, her yells prevent it. With her voice, which is now loud and clear, Lucy’s mouth is closed off to violation; she has now found her voice, and, in doing so, can prevent further penetration and abuse.
Lastly, in taking the psychoanalytic reading of the film this far, it stands to reason Sleeping Beauty is a piece of queer cinema, and is ultimately about female homoeroticism. Clearly the heterosexual relationships/encounters in the film are negative, abusive, and non-functional. Conversely, the female relationships/encounters are primarily trusting and caring. True, the initial encounter between Lucy and the woman, regarding the lipstick shade, was aggressive, yet the relationship between Lucy and Clara is the film’s unconventional love story. It is Clara’s mouth-to-mouth resuscitation that (literally and figuratively) brings Lucy to life in the film’s conclusion. This powerful moment was foreshadowed the second time Lucy is in the lab with the male technician. Clara rings Lucy’s phone and Lucy all but yanks the long, white tube from her throat and mouth to answer Clara’s call. Lucy desires Clara and she responds positively to her, which is in stark contrast to every other relationship she has in the film.
Freud could never fully account for homosexuality, particularly female homosexuality, which is where Leigh takes aim in Sleeping Beauty. The film cannot be fully appreciated without a psychoanalytic lens, yet it points to an area of psychoanalysis that falters. Clearly Leigh, a novelist turned director, knew what she was doing. Sleeping Beauty’s foundation is in psychoanalysis, yet builds off it, evolving into a remarkable contribution to queer cinema.
~ by Kate Bellmore on 08/01/2012.
Posted in Golden Globe Shuns
Tags: Australian film, Emily Browning, Jane Campion, Julia Leigh, psychoanalysis, Rachael Blake, Sigmund Freud, Sleeping Beauty
This article is about the 2011 motion picture. For other uses, see Sleeping Beauty (disambiguation).
Sleeping Beauty is a 2011 Australian eroticdrama film that was written and directed by Julia Leigh. It is her debut as a director. The film stars Emily Browning as a young university student. She takes up a part-time high-paying job with a mysterious group that caters to rich men who like the company of nude sleeping young women. Lucy is required to sleep alongside paying customers and be absolutely submissive to their erotic desires, fulfilling their fantasies by voluntarily entering into physical unconsciousness.
The film is based on influences that include Leigh's own dream experiences, and the novels The House of the Sleeping Beauties and Memories of My Melancholy Whores by Nobel laureatesYasunari Kawabata and Gabriel Garcia Marquez, respectively.
The film premiered in May at the 2011 Cannes Film Festival as the first Competition entry to be screened. It was the first Australian film In Competition at Cannes since Moulin Rouge! (2001). Sleeping Beauty was released in Australia on 23 June 2011. It premiered in US cinemas on 2 December 2011 on limited release. Overall critical reception of the film has been mixed, rising to some approval through June 2016, after circulation of the film on the festival circuit; audience reception, on the other hand, has been weak (less than a third of a sample of tens of thousands approving).
Lucy (Emily Browning) is a university student who works in an office in the daytime and at a restaurant in the evenings. She is occasionally a research subject at a science laboratory.
Lucy is paying tuition and rent by doing several jobs. She is caring for a sick relative, Birdmann (Ewen Leslie) who is very attracted to her. While she does not return his sexual interest, Lucy enjoys Birdmann's company, and in his presence is the only time she is shown smiling or laughing. An old joke between the two is that Birdmann frequently asked Lucy to marry him; Lucy always says no. Due to lack of money and Birdmann's bad health, Lucy makes a decision to look for another part-time job.
In response to a classified ad for yet another short-term job, Lucy meets Clara (Rachael Blake), who runs a service that combines lingeriemodelling and catering performed by young women at a black tie dinner party for male clients. Clara assures her that the men are not allowed to touch the women sexually, and Lucy agrees to try it. Clara inspects Lucy's body and names her "Sara" for the purpose of anonymity. At the dinner party, Lucy is the only girl dressed in white; the other women wear black lingerie that is much more revealing than Lucy's costume.
After one other session as a serving girl, Lucy gets promoted. She receives a call from Clara's assistant Tom (Eden Falk) for a different request. Lucy is driven to a country mansion, where Clara offers Lucy a new role wherein she will be voluntarily sedated and sleep naked while male clients lie beside her. They are permitted to caress and cuddle her, but penetration is not allowed. After Lucy falls asleep, she lies unconscious on the bed and Clara leads in her client. After Clara reminds the man of the no-penetration rule, he strips and curls up beside Lucy.
After a few of these sessions, Lucy has enough money to move into a larger, more expensive apartment, where she lives alone. She receives a call from Birdmann, who has overdosed on painkillers. She goes to his house and finds him dying in his bed. Sobbing, she takes off her shirt and gets in bed with him, but he dies in her arms. At Birdmann's funeral, Lucy abruptly asks an old friend if he will marry her, in an echo of Birdmann's old playful banter. The friend, however, not understanding the reference, takes her seriously and, shocked, refuses her, citing a number of Lucy's personal problems as his reasons.
At her next assignment with Clara, Lucy asks if she can see what happens during the sessions while she is asleep. Clara refuses, saying it will put her clients at risk of blackmail. Lucy decides to surreptitiously film her next encounter. The client is once again the first man, but this time, he also drinks the tea with a much larger dose of the sleeping drug.
The following morning, Clara comes in and checks the man's pulse, showing no surprise when he cannot be awakened. Clara tries to wake Lucy, who has overdosed as well, and is eventually able to revive her using mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. Lucy begins screaming when she sees the dead man in bed next to her.
The film ends with the scene captured by the hidden camera: the dead old man and the sleeping girl both lying peacefully together in bed.
Writer and director Julia Leigh, primarily a novelist, said in an interview with Filmmaker Magazine that she initially wrote the film without the intention of directing it. In writing the script, Leigh drew from several literary inspirations, including Yasunari Kawabata's House of the Sleeping Beauties and Memories of My Melancholy Whores by Gabriel Garcia Marquez, as well as the eponymous fairytales by Charles Perrault and The Brothers Grimm, and the biblical story of an old King Solomon who had young virgins brought to him from all over his realm to sleep alongside him. She also noted the phenomenon of images of sleeping girls on some of the fetish websites. Kawabata's novel had been adapted in 2006 by German director Vadim Glowna, as Das Haus der Schlafenden Schönen (House of the Sleeping Beauties), but had been released to generally negative reviews.
The Sleeping Beauty script made the 2008 Black List of unproduced screenplays grabbing attention in Hollywood. In September 2009 the project was approved for funding from Screen Australia. In February 2010 it was announced that Emily Browning would play the lead role.Mia Wasikowska was originally cast as Lucy but she dropped out when offered the title role in the adaption of Jane Eyre.
Principal photography on the film began on April 3, 2010, at University of Sydney, Camperdown and downtown Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
Reception of the film has included mixed critical and audience reviews, with evolution in critical reception toward positive after its appearance in festival circulation. As of June 2016, Sleeping Beauty (2011) has received "mixed or average reviews" from the aggregate of 20 critics appearing at metacritic.com, with a mean score of 57 on a 100-point scale from these professional reviewers; the aggregate audience score (user score), as of this date, at this site, reflected "mixed or average reviews" (<50 ratings). As of the same date (June 2016), the film has failed to achieve a critical consensus at rottentomatoes.com, where the 90 professional reviews to that date are evenly split between approval and disapproval ("fresh" and "rotten")—with scores of 5.2 and 5.5 on a 10-point scale for all and top critics, respectively (49 and 52% "likes," respectively); the aggregate audience score, as of this date, at this site, reflected disapproval of more than 2 in 3 viewers (32% likes, >65,000 ratings, scoring an average of 2.7 on a 5-point scale).
In a review from the 2011 Cannes Film Festival, Peter Bradshaw of The Guardian called the film "Technically elegant with vehemence and control ... Emily Browning gives a fierce and powerful performance ... There is force and originality in Leigh's work". David Rooney of The Hollywood Reporter called it "soporific in every sense", Ian Buckwalter of NPR noted the film's "sexless and sterile" approach to its erotic material, saying, "This Sleeping Beauty is no fairy tale; it's stark, dispassionate and noticeably short on happily ever afters".Salon reviewer Andrew O'Hehir found it "Gorgeous, opaque and disturbing". James Rocchi in Indiewire was also a fan, saying: "This is a hothouse flower, beautiful and delicate and yet surprisingly hardy and potentially toxic". On its US release, A. O. Scott in The New York Times found the film "seductive and unnerving in equal measure" while also observing that "the tone is quiet and the pacing serenely unhurried" and that "Sleeping Beauty is at times almost screamingly funny, a pointed, deadpan surrealist sex farce that Luis Buñuel might have admired".
Sleeping Beauty was a film festival fixture, showing in over 50 major festivals worldwide in 2011-2012. In addition to festival screenings, Sleeping Beauty was distributed commercially into 45 territories (over 65 countries).
As noted, reception of the film globally, by audiences, reflected disapproval of more than 2 in 3 viewers (32% likes, >65,000 ratings, scoring an average of 2.7 on a 5-point scale). However, when Sleeping Beauty was first shown on the SBS World Movies pay TV channel in Australia, in September 2012, it was the highest-rated of the films of this site.[full citation needed] It subsequently became the highest-rated film ever shown on the World Movies channel.[full citation needed]
Response of filmmakers
This section needs expansion with: further commentary, by filmmakers (as opposed to critics and academics), to the content and production of the film. You can help by adding to it.(June 2016)
Director Dan Sallitt in Notebook analysed literary and film devices employed by the film in 2012, and recognised intentional elements of humour. Sallitt states that "Leigh’s emphasis on the routine, rigid aspects of social institutions within a Kubrickian mise-en-scène puts Sleeping Beauty in the realm of the horror film, just as all Kubrick films are effectively horror films."
In an article on director Ralph Pitre's blogspot, Adam Nayman follows Sallitt and compares the techniques used in Sleeping Beauty to those of James B.Harris in his 1973 Cannes film Some Call It Loving, referring in passing to the common influences of Kubrick, Buñuel and Haneke
Awards and honours
This section needs expansion with: the recognition, based on sources, that this film has received. You can help by adding to it.(June 2016)
Actor Jude Law, a Cannes jury member, stated in a press conference that Sleeping Beauty had just missed out on one of the major awards at the Cannes film festival at which it premiered. Julia Leigh won Best Director for Sleeping Beauty at the 2011 pt:estival-de-Cinema-de-Sitges received a Special Mention at the Stockholm International Film Festival 2011 for the film, for "…its ability to provoke and at the same time start an intellectual discussion about the things that it hurts to talk about" and in July 2012 won Best Director in a First Feature Film at the Durban International Film Festival. In May 2012, on the anniversary of her Cannes debut, Julia Leigh received the top award of the Australian Directors' Guild, Best Direction in a Feature Film. The New Statesman awarded Julia Leigh a 2011 Cultural Capital Award for Best Newcomer Director.
Emily Browning won best actress awards for her work in the film, at The Hamptons (USA) and Kiel (Germany).
Sleeping Beauty has attracted attention from students and faculty in academia. In Film Quarterly in 2011, Genevieve Yue compared the Catherine Breillat film The Sleeping Beauty to the Leigh film, in detail.[full citation needed] Emma Deleva, writing in Cahiers du Cinéma in 2011, discussed the controversy over the French R16 classification and the distributor's unsuccessful appeal against it.[full citation needed] In 2012, Lesley Chow, writing in Bright Lights Film Journal, discussed other literary aspects relevant to the film, including the symbolic use of sleep as a metaphor.[full citation needed] This line of argument was extended by Meredith Jones in 2014, in a paper in the International Journal of Cultural Studies, where Sleeping Beauty was argued to represent sleep as the "anti-matter to the neo-liberal imperative of Just Do It.".[full citation needed] In 2014, Kyra Clarke argued that Sleeping Beauty "highlights the importance of placing aside" conventional media expectations of girls, accepting, rather, "the challenge of confused and imperfect representations" enabling "recognition of the heteronormative constraints that structure society" (in a paper in Studies in Australian Cinema). Kendra Reynolds concludes a paper in the Journal of International Women's Studies stating that "through her anti-tale Leigh provides the resuscitation needed to revive feminism from its premature bed in order to ensure that the real Sleeping Beauty, the true female identity, will not sleep forever." In a 2016 University of Montreal Masters thesis, Laurence Lejour-Perras, comparing Sleeping Beauty with Anatomy of Hell (Catherine Breillat 2004), Nuit#1 (Anne Émond 2011) and Klip (Maja Milos 2012) shows how these female directors deconstruct the female gender stereotypes of passivity and modesty, thus deliberately thwarting the spectator's erotic experience.
- ^"Sleeping Beauty (2011) – Box office / business". IMDb.com. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- ^"Sleeping Beauty (2011) (II) (2011)". Boxofficemojo.com. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- ^"Big Mamma's Boy posts decent opening at the Box Office". If.com.au. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- ^ ab"Latest feature films approved by Screen Australia". Screen Australia. 7 September 2009. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- ^"Sleeping Beauty, Julia Leigh, 101 mins (18)". Independent. 11 June 2017. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
- ^"Sleeping Beauty – review". BBC News. 11 June 2017. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
- ^ abMacauly, Scott (30 November 2011). ""Sleeping Beauty" writer/director Julia Leigh". Filmmaker Magazine. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
- ^ abLim, Dennis (15 June 2011). "ArtsBeat: Cannes Q. and A.: Julia Leigh on a Modern-Day 'Sleeping Beauty'"(NYT arts blogpost). The New York Times. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- ^ abcRottenTomatoes Staff (10 June 2016). "Sleeping Beauty [2 December 2011]". rottentomatoes.com. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- ^ abMetacritic Staff (10 June 2016). "Sleeping Beauty [2 December 2011]". metacritic.com. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- ^ ab"Objectification Is Also in the Eye of the Beheld". NY Times News. 12 June 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
- ^"REEL WOMEN: 'SLEEPING BEAUTY'". screencrush.com. 12 June 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
- ^"A young woman sells her sleeping body for sex in Australian novelist Julia Leigh's first film". BFI. 12 June 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
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- ^"Sleeping Beauty". Times Higher. 12 June 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
- ^ ab"TIFF 2011: SLEEPING BEAUTY". Collider. 12 June 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
- ^ abcBodey, Michael (3 February 2010). "Who's who in Tim Winton's Cloudstreet". The Australian. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- ^ abcdeScott, A.O. (1 December 2011). "Objectification Is Also in the Eye of the Beheld [Sleeping Beauty, Directed by Julia Leigh, Drama, Romance, Not Rated, 1h 41m]"(film review). The New York Times. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- ^Stratton, David (25 June 2011). "Sleeping Beauty's naked provocation is no fairytale"(film review). The Australian. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- ^ abDavis, Cindy (2011-04-17). "Date Rape for Pay: Sleeping Beauty Trailer"(movie review). Pajiba. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- ^"Comment le cinéma a adapté, magnifié ou massacré les contes". Slate.fr.
- ^David Gritten (11 June 2017). "Not the Sleeping Beauty you know". Retrieved 11 June 2017.
- ^""Sleeping Beauty" - A writer behind the camera". 11 June 2017. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
- ^"At Cannes, the women have arrived". The Globe and Mail. 11 June 2017. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
- ^"Das Haus der Schlafenden Schönen". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
- ^"Vadim Glowna's Laborious House of the Sleeping Beauties". Village Voice. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
- ^"The 2008 Black List – The Hottest Unproduced Screenplays of 2008" slashfilm.com
- ^Billington, Alex (9 February 2010). Emily Browning Replaces Mia Wasikowska in "Sleeping Beauty" Retrieved 5 April 2012.
- ^"Sleeping Beauty Filming Locations". 11 June 2017. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
- ^Relative to this mean, the median score of 63.5 indicates the substantial number of high scores that are also a part of this aggregate. See the metacritic.com citation, op. cit.
- ^Bradshaw, Peter (12 May 2011). "Cannes 2011 review: Sleeping Beauty". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- ^Buckwalter, Ian (1 December 2011). "A 'Sleeping Beauy', And Dark Things In Her Slumber". NPR. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
- ^O'Hehir, Andrew (12 May 2011). "Cannes: A creepy, erotic retelling of Sleeping Beauty". Salon.com. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- ^Rocchi, James (11 May 2011). "Cannes Review: Sleeping Beauty Starring Emily Browning Seduces With The Pervading Power Of A Dream". Indiewire. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- ^Scott A.O., Sleeping Beauty (2011). The New York Times, 1 December 2011
- ^Bodey, M., Once Upon A Time. The Australian, 18 June 2011
- ^Stephen Matchett. First Watch. The Weekend Australian, 12–13 January 2013. Review p18.[full citation needed]
- ^Michael Bodey. Reel Time, The Australian. A Plus p15, 20 March 2013.[full citation needed]
- ^ ab"In Defense of Julia Leigh's "Sleeping Beauty"". Mubi.com. 11 June 2017. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
- ^Adam Nayman.Eyes Wide Shut: "Some Call It Loving" and "Sleeping Beauty" Order From Chaos. 22 June 2016.http://rpitremedia.blogspot.com.au/2016/06/eyes-wide-shut-some-call-it-loving-and.html, access date 22 June 2016
- ^Going Places, 28 July 2012
- ^Ryan Gilbey. New Statesman 27 December 2011
- ^Genevieve Yue, Film Quarterly 65 Spring 2012 pp 33–37.[full citation needed]
- ^Emma Deleva, Cahiers du Cinéma Décembre 2011 p 47.[full citation needed]
- ^Lesley Chow, Bright Lights Film Journal, Issue 76 May 2012.[full citation needed]
- ^Jones.M. Sleep, radical hospitality, and makeover's anti-matter. Int J Cultural Studies 16 January 2014.[full citation needed]
- ^[dead link]
- ^Clarke, Kyra (2014). "Surrendering expectations of the girl in Julia Leigh's Sleeping Beauty"(article, primary source). Studies in Australasian Cinema. 8 (1): 2–15. doi:10.1080/17503175.2014.905050. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- ^Reynolds, Kendra (2014). "A Rude Awakening:Sleeping Beauty as a Metaphor for the Slumber of Post-Feminism"(essay, primary source). Journal of International Women's Studies. 16 (10): 34–46. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- ^Lejour-Perras, Laurence (2016) Sexualité et corporéité féminines dans le cinéma de réalisatrices contemporaines: une lecture féministe.Master's thesis . Department of Art History and Film Studies. University of Montreal http://hdl.handle.net/1866/14021