Crps Case Study Articles

Systematic review of randomized controlled trialsWelcome to RSDSA’s research library which contains the latest published articles on basic and clinical CRPS and RSD-related research, diagnosis, treatment, and management of CRPS and RSD. The articles are arranged in categories such as CRPS and RSD Overview, Chronic Pain, CRPS and Dystonia/Movement Disorders, Ketamine treatment, etc. Another excellent website to visit to locate the abstracts of peer-reviewed articles on chronic pain syndromes is http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/. Once you reach the page, type CRPS or RSD into the website’s search field to reveal a number of topic areas related to CRPS/RSD and click on the one/s most relevant to your interest.

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We have compiled a list of articles on research and treatment of CRPS. You may use this for your personal use, put please heed the following warning concerning copyright compliance:

The copyright of the US (Title 17, US Code) Govern the making of photocopies or other reproductions of copyrighted material. Under certain conditions specified in the law, libraries and archives are authorized to furnish a photocopy of other reproduction. One of these specified conditions is that the photocopy or reproduction is not to be “used for any purpose other than private study, scholarship, or research.” If a user makes a request for, or later uses a photocopy or reproduction for purposes in excess of “fair use,” that user may be liable for copyright infringement.

  • The RSDSA provides not only these publications but other information as well for the benefit of our members and the general public. The RSDSA does not endorse any particular treatment/medication/publication/guideline etc. but rather supplies these for the edification/education of the CRPS community. We encourage those who use the information to discuss the same with your physician or provider.

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT)

Glia Activation and Neuropathic Pain

Impairment/Disability

KetamineTreatment

Mirror Therapy and Graded Motor Imagery

Neuropathic Pain

Opioids

Physical and Occupational Therapy Treatment for CRPS

RSDSA Funded Research

Research

Somatoform/Conversion Disorder

Spinal Cord Stimulation and Neuromodulation

Suicide and Chronic Pain

Treatment

 

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT)

  • Author: Bacchini M, Valenti E, Soncini G
    Title: Post-traumatic reflex sympathetic dystrophy in the ankle and foot: a study of 32 cases
    Source: Chir Organi Mov. 1999;84(2):189-96.
  • Authors: Rita Katznelson, Shira C. Segal, Hance Clarke
    Title: Successful Threatment of Lower Limb CRPS following Three Weeks of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
    Source: Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Pain Research and Mangement, Volume 2016, Article ID 3458371
  • Author: Kiralp MZ, Vural D, KlskinI, Ay H, Dursun H
    Title: Effectiveness of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in the Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
    Source: J Int Med Res. 2004;32:258-262.
  • Author: Peach G
    Title: Hyperbaric oxygen and the reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome: a case report
    Source: Undersea Hyperbaric Med. 1995:22(4):1-2.
  • Author: Tuter NV, Danilov AB, Polyakova LV
    Title: [The treatment of a complex regional pain syndrome]
    Source: Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 1997;97(11):33-35. Russian.
  • Author: Yildiz S, Uzun G, Kiralp MZ
    Title: Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Chronic Pain Management
    Source: Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2006;10:95-100.

Impairment/Disability

Ketamine Treatment

  • Title: Survey on IV Ketamine for CRPS Underscores Need for Consensus Protocols
    Source: PainMedicine News
  • Author: Terence L. Ahern MD, Andrew A. Herring MD, Steve Miller MD, and Bradley W. Frazee MD
    Title: Low-Dose Ketamine Infusion for Emergency Department Patients with Severe Pain
    Source: Pain Medicine 2015; 16: 1402-1409 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • Author: Pari Azari, David R. Lindsay, Dean Briones, Collin Clarke, Thomas Buchheit and Srinivas Pyati Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Pain Management, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA
    Title: Efficacy and Safety of Ketamine in Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome A Systematic Review
    Source: CNS Drugs2012;26(3)
  • Authors: Marchetti F, Coutaux A, Bellanger A, Magneux C, Bourgeois P, Mion G.
    Title: Efficacy and safety of oral ketamine for the relief of intractable chronic pain: A retrospective 5-year study of 51 patients.
    Source: Eur J Pain. 2015 Aug;19(7):984-93. doi: 10.1002/ejp.624. Epub 2014 Nov 10.
  • Author: Bell RF, Moore RA
    Title: Intravenous ketamine for CRPS: Making too much of too little?
    Source: Pain. 2010; In press.
  • Author: Blonk MI, Koder BG, van den Bemt PMLA, Huygen FJPM
    Title: Use of oral ketamine in chronic pain management: A review
    Source: Eur J Pain. 2009; In press.
  • Authors: Amy Lee Bredlau, Brian T Harel, Michael P McDermott, Robert H Dworkin, David N Korones, James G Dolan and Heather R Adams
    Title: Neurocognitive Changes after Sustained Ketamine Administration in Children with Chronic Pain
    Source: Bredlau et al., J Palliat Care Med 2015, 5:2 http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2165-7386.1000215
  • Author: Daniel B. Carra, Leonidas C. Goudasa, William T. Denmana, Daniel Brookoff, Peter S. Staats, Loralie Brennen, Geoff Green, Randi Albine, Douglas Hamiltone, Mark C. Rogerse, Leonard Firestone, Philip T. Lavin, Fred Mermelstein
    Title: Safety and efficacy of intranasal ketamine for the treatment of breakthrough pain in patients with chronic pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study
    Source: Pain 108 (2004) 17–27
  • Author: Sara B. Connolly, BA, Joshua P. Prager, MD, and R.Norman Harden, MD
    Title: A Systematic Review of Ketamine for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
    Source: Pain Medicine;00:00-00 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • Author: Correll GE, Maleki J, Gracely EJ, Muir JJ, Harbut RE
    Title: Subanesthetic Ketamine Infusion Therapy: A Retrospective Analysis of a Novel Therapeutic Approach to Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
    Source: Pain Med. 2004;5:263-275.
  • Author: Deakin JFW, Lees J, McKie S, Hallak JEC, Williams SR, Dursun SM
    Title: Glutamate and the Neural Basis of the Subjective Effects of Ketamine
    Source: Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008;65(2):154-164.
  • Authors: Marc DeKock, Sebastien Loix & Patricia Lavand’homme
    Title: Ketamine and Peripheral
    Source: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics 19 (2013) 403-410
  • Authors: Sabrina R. Douglas, Botros B.Shenoda, Rehman A.Qureshi, AhmetS acan, Guillermo M. Alexander, Marielle Perreault, James E. Barrett, Enrique Aradillas-Lopez, Robert J. Schwartzman, and Seena K.Ajit
    Title: Analgesic Response to Intravenous Ketamine Is Linked to a Circulating microRNA Signature in Female Patients With Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
    Source: The Journal of Pain, Vol 16, No 9 (September), 2015: pp 814-824 Available online at www.jpain.organdwww.sciencedirect.com
  • Author: Dermot P. Maher, MD, MS, Lucy Chen, MD, and Jianren Mai, MD, PhD
    Title: Intravenous Ketamine Infusions for Neuropathic Pain Management: A Promising Therapy in Need of Optimization
    Source: International Anesthesia Research Society February 217 – Volume 124 – Number 2
  • Authors: F. Marchetti, A. Coutaux, A. Bellanger, C. Magneux, P. Bourgeois, G. Mion
    Title: Efficacy and safety of oral ketamine for the relief of intractable chronic pain: A retrospective 5-year study of 51 patients
    Source: European Journal of Pain, 11/25/2014 Clinical Article
  • Author: Everett A, Mclean B, Plunkett A, Buckenmaier C
    Title: A Unique Presentation of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I Treated with a Continuous Sciatic Peripheral Nerve Block and Parenteral Ketamine Infusion: A Case Report
    Source: Pain Medicine. 2009; In press.
  • Authors: Minseung Kim, MA, Sungkun Cho, PhD, and Jang-Han Lee, PhD
    Title: The Effects of Long-Term Ketamine Treatment on Cognitive Function in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Preliminary Study
    Source: Pain Medicine 2016; 17: 1447–1451 doi: 10.1093/pm/pnv112
  • Author: Finch PM, Knudsen L, Drummond PD
    Title: Reduction of allodynia in patients with complex regional pain syndrome: A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of topical ketamine
    Source: Pain. 2009; In press.
  • Authors: Steven J. Gaydos, MD, MPH, Amanda M. Kelley, MA, PHD, Catherine M. Grandizio, BA, MS, Jeremy R. Athy, BA, MA, and P. Lynne Walters, MB CHB
    Title: Comparison of the Effects of Ketamine and Morphine on Performance of Representative Military Tasks
    Source: The Journal of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 48, No. 3, pp. 313–324, 2015
  • Author: Steven M. Green, MD, Baruch Krauss, MD, EdM
    Title: Clinical Practice Guideline for Emergency Department Ketamine Dissociative Sedation in Children
    Source: Copyright © 2004 by the American College of Emergency Physicians coi:10.1016/ j.annemergmed.2004.06.006
  • Author: Goldberg MR, Comsky R, Scaringe D, et al
    Title: Multi-Day Low Dose Ketamine Infusion for the Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
    Source: Pain Phys. 2005;8:175-179.
  • Author: Harbut RE, Correll GE
    Title: Successful Treatment of a Nine-Year Case of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy) With Intravenous Ketamine-Infusion Therapy in a Warfarin-Anticoagulated Adult Female
    Source: Am Acad Pain Med. 2002;3;147-155.
  • Author: Hocking G, Visser E, Shug S, Cousins M
    Title: Ketamine: Does Life Begin at 40
    Source: Pain. 2007;15.
  • Author: Hocking G, Cousins MJ
    Title: Ketamine in Chronic Pain Management: An Evidence-Based Review
    Source: Anesth Analg. 2003;97:1730-1739
  • Author: Huge V, Lauchart M, Magerl W, et al
    Title: Effects of low-dose intranasal (S)-ketamine in patients with neuropathic pain
    Source: Eur J Pain. 2009; In press.
  • Author: Hurley D
    Title: Two approaches to ketamine move forward for complex regional pain
    Source: Neurol Today. 2006;6(3):1:17-19.
  • Authors: So Yeon Jeon, MD, Seongho Seo, PhD, Jae Sung Lee, PhD, Soo-Hee Choi, MD, PhD, Do-Hyeong Lee, MD, Ye-Ha Jung, PhD, Man-Kyu Song, MD, Kyung-Jun Lee, MD, Yong Chul Kim, MD, PhD, Hyun Woo Kwon, MD, Hyung-Jun Im, MD, Dong Soo Lee, MD, PhD, Gi Jeong Cheon, MD, PhD, Do-Hyung Kang, MD, PhD
    Title: [11C]-(R)-PK11195 positron emission tomography in patients with complex regional pain syndrome. A pilot study
    Source: Medicine (2017) 96:1(e5735)
  • Author: Kiefer RT, Rohr P, Ploppa A, et al
    Title: Efficacy of Ketamine in Anesthetic Dosage for the Treatment of Refractory Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: An Open-Label Phase II Study
    Source: Pain Med. 2008 Feb 5. E-pub ahead of print.
  • Author: Kiefer RT, Rohr P, Ploppa A, et al
    Title: A Pilot Open-Label Study of the Efficacy of Subanesthetic Isometric S(+)-Ketamine in Refractory CRPS Patients
    Source: Pain Med. 2008;9(1):44-54.
  • Author: Kiefer R, Rohr P, Ploppa A, Altemeyer K, Schwartzman RJ
    Title: Complete Recovery from Intractable Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, CRPS-Type I, Following Anesthetic Ketamine and Midazolam
    Source: Pain Pract. 2007;7:147–150.
  • Author: Kirkpatrick AF, Lubenow T
    Title: Regarding Bell and Moore, Intravenous ketamine for CRPS: Making too much of too little? Pain 2010;150:10–11 (Letter to the Editor)
    Source: Pain. 2010;151(2):550-557.
  • Author: Koffler SP, Hampstead BM, Irani F, et al
    Title: The neurocognitive effects of 5 day anesthetic ketamine for the treatment of refractory complex regional pain syndrome
    Source: Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2007;22:719-729.
  • Author: Lene Cecilie Mathisen, Per Skjelbred, Lasse A. Skoglund and Ivar Oye
    Title: Effect of ketamine, an NMDA receptor inhibitor, in acute and chronic orofacial pain
    Source: Pain, 61 (1995) 215-220 215 © 1995 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved 0304-3959/95/$09.50
  • Author: Nama S, Meenan DR, Fritz WT
    Title: The Use of Sub-Anesthetic Intravenous Ketamine and Adjuvant Dexmedetomidine when Treating Acute Pain from CRPS
    Source: Pain Physician. 2010;13(4)365-368.
  • Author: Minseung Kim, MA, Sungkun Cho, PhD, and Jang-Han Lee, PhD
    Title: The Effects of Long-Term Ketamine Treatment on Cognitive Function in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Preliminary Study
    Source: Pain Medicine 2016; 0: 1–5 doi: 10.1093/pm/nv112
  • Authors: Marieke Niesters MD MSc, Christian Martini MD, Albert Dahan MD PhD
    Title: Ketamine for Chronic Pain: Risks and Benefits
    Source: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology© 2013 The British Pharmacological Society
  • Author: Noppers IM, Niesters M, Aarts LPHJ, et al
    Title: Drug-induced liver injury following a repeated course of ketamine treatment for chronic pain in CRPS type 1 patients: A report of 3 cases
    Source: Pain. In press
  • Author: Pasero C, McCaffrey M
    Title: Ketamine
    Source: Am J Nurs. 2005;105:60-64.
  • Authors: Jan Persson
    Title: Ketamine in Pain Management
    Source: CNS Neuro science & Therapeutics 19 (2013) 396-402
  • Authors: Rosemary C. Polomano, PhD, RN, FAAN,Chester C. Buckenmaier III, MD,Kyung H. Kwon, MSN, CRNP, Alexandra L. Hanlon, PhD,Christine Rupprecht, MSN, RN,Cynthia Goldberg, MSN, RN-BC,and Rollin M. Gallagher, MD, MPH
    Title: Effects of Low-Dose IV Ketamine on Peripheral and Central Pain from Major Limb Injuries Sustained in Combat
    Source: Pain Medicine 2013; *: **_** Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • Author: A Pourmand, M Mazer-Amirshahi, C Royall, R Alhawas, R Shesser
    Title: Low dose ketamine use in the emergency department, a new direction in pain management
    Source: American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2017), http://dx.doi.org/10,1016/j.ajem.2017.03.005
  • Authors: John R. Richards MD, Rachel E. Rockford MD
    Title: Low-dose ketamine analgesia: patient and physician experience in the ED
    Source: American Journal of  Emergency Medicine (2013)31,390-394
  • Author: Sakamoto E, Shiiba S, Noma N, et al
    Title: Case Report: A Possible Case of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome in the Orofacial Region
    Source: Pain Med. 2010;11:274-280.
  • Author: Schwartzman RJ*, Samudralwar R, Getson P and Alexander GM
    Title: Ketamine as Adjunctive Anesthesia in Refractory Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Patients: A Case Series
    Source: Pain Syndrome Patients: A Case Series. J Clin Case Rep 2:186. doi:10.4172/2165-7920.1000186
  • Author: Schwartzman RJ, Alexander GM, Grothusen JR, Paylor T, Reichenberger E, Perreault M
    Title: Outpatient intravenous ketamine for the treatment of complex regional pain
    syndrome: A double-blind placebo controlled study
    Source: Pain. 2009; In press.
  • Author: Schwartzman RJ, Alexander GM, Grothusen JR
    Title: The use of ketamine in complex regional pain syndrome: possible mechanisms
    Source: Expert Rev. Neurother. 2011.11;719-734.
  • Author: Shirani P, Salamone AR, Schulz PE, Edmonson EA
    Title: Ketamine Treatment for Intractable Pain in a Patient with Severe Refractory Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Case Report
    Source: Pain Phys. 2008;11:3;339-342.
  • Author: Sigtermans MJ, van Hilten JJ, Bauer MCR, et al
    Title: Ketamine produces effective and long-term pain relief in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1
    Source: Pain. 2009 (In press)
  • Author: Sunder RA, Toshniwal GR, Dureja GP
    Title: Ketamine as an adjuvant in sympathetic blocks for management of Central sensitization following peripheral nerve injury
    Source: J Brachial Plex Peripher Nerve Inj. 2008;3(22).
  • Authors: Nalini Vadivelu, Erika Schermer, Vijay Kodumundi, Kumar Belani, Richard D. Urman, Alan David Kaye
    Title: Role of ketamine for analgesia in adults and children
    Source: Journal of Anesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology – July-September 2016, Vol. 32 Issue 3
  • Authors: Lynn R. Webster and Mary Jean Walker
    Title: Safety and Efficacy of Prolonged Outpatient Ketamine Infusions for Neuropathic Pain
    Source: American Journal of Therapeutics 13,300–305 (2006)
  • Author: Webster LR, Walker MJ
    Title: Safety and Efficacy of Prolonged Outpatient Ketamine Infusions for Neuropathic Pain
    Source: Am J Therapeutics. 2006;13:300-305.
  • Author: Wilcock A, Twycross R
    Title: Therapeutic Reviews: Ketamine
    Source: J Pain Symptom Mgmnt
  • Authors: Yeaman F, Meek R, Egerton-Warburton D, Rosengarten P, Graudins A.
    Title: Sub-dissociative-dose intranasal ketamine for moderate to severe pain in adult emergency department patients Source: Emergency Medicine Australasia (2014) 26, 237-242 doi: 10.1111/1742-6723-12173
  • Authors: Zhao J, Wang Y, Wang D.
    Title: The Effect of Ketamine Infusion in the Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: a Systemic Review and Meta-analysis.
    Source: PMID: 29404715 DOI: 10.1007/s11916-018-0664-x

Mirror Therapy and Graded Motor Imagery

  • Title: Mirror Box Training 2.0
    Source: Advance Healtcare Network.
  • Author: Cacchio A, De Blassis E, De Blasis V, Santilli V, Spacca G
    Title: Mirror Therapy in Complex RegionalPain Syndrome Type 1 of the Upper Limb in Stroke Patients
    Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. 2009; In press.
  • Author: Cacchio A, De Blassis E, Necozione S, di Orio F, Santilli V
    Title: Mirror Therapy for Chronic Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 and Stroke (Letter to the Editor)
    Source: N Eng J Med. 2009;361(6):634-636.
  • Author: Ezendam D, Bongers RM, Jannink MJA
    Title: Systematic review of the effectiveness of mirror therapy in upper extremity
    function
    Source: Disability & Rehabilitation. 2009 May 20.
  • Author: Gallagher K
    Title: Mailbag: Mirror Therapy
    Source: RSDSA Review. 2008;21(2):5.
  • Author: Hall J, Harrison S, Cohen H, et al
    Title: Pain and other symptoms of CRPS can be increased by ambiguous visual stimuli – An exploratory study
    Source: Eur J Pain. 2010;In press. Author Manuscript
  • Author: Lewis JS, Kersten P, McCabe CS, McPherson KM, Blake DR
    Title: Body Perception Disturbance: A contribution to pain in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)
    Source: Pain. 2007;133:111-119.
  • Author: Lewis JS, Kersten P, McPherson KM, et al
    Title: Wherever is my arm? Impaired upper limb position accuracy in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
    Source: Pain. E-pub 12 April 2010.
  • Authors: J. S. Lewis, P. Schweinhardt
    Title: Perceptions of the painful body: The relationship between body perception disturbance, pain and tactile discrimination in complex regional pain syndrome
    Source: Eur J Pain 16 (2012) 1320-1330 © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters
  • Author: Lewis J, McCabe CS
    Title: Body Perception Disturbance (BPD) in CRPS
    Source: Practical Pain Management. 2010 Apr:60-66.
  • Author: McCabe CS, Haigh RC, Ring EFJ, Halligan PW, Wall PD, Blake DR
    Title: A controlled pilot study of the utility of mirror visual feedback in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (type 1)
    Source: Rheumatology. 2003;42:97-101.
  • Author: Moseley GL
    Title: Graded motor imagery is effective for long-standing complex regional pain syndrome: a randomised controlled trial
    Source: Pain. 2004;108:192-198.
  • Author: Moseley GL, Zalucki N, Birklein F, Marinus J, van Hilten JJ, Luomajoki H
    Title: Thinking About Movement Hurts: The Effect of Motor Imagery on Pain and Swelling in People With Chronic Arm Pain
    Source: Arthritis Rheum. 2008;59(5):623-631.
  • Author: Selles RW, Schreuders TAR, Stam HJ
    Title: Mirror Therapy in Patients with Causalgia (Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type II) Following Peripheral Nerve Injury: Two Cases
    Sources: J Rehabil Med. 2008;40:312-314.

Neuropathic Pain

  • Author: Lenz M, Hoffken O, Stude P, Lissek S, Schwenkreis P, Reinersmann A, Frettloh AJ, Richter H, Tegenthoff, M, C. Maier, MD
    Title: Bilateral somatosensory cortex disinhibition in complex regional pain
    syndrome type I
    Source: Neurology online August 31, 2011; DOI 10.1212/WNL.0b013e31822e1436
  • Author: Cooper MS and Przebinda AS
    Title: Synaptic Conversion of Chloride-Dependent Synapses in
    Spinal Nociceptive Circuits: Roles in Neuropathic Pain
    Source: Pain Research and Treatment. 2011
  • Author: Dworkin RF, Backonja M, Rowbotham MD, et al
    Title: Advances in Neuropathic Pain
    Source: Arch Neurol. 2003;60:1524-1534.
  • Author: Dworkin RH, O’Connor AB, Backonja M, et al
    Title: Pharmacologic management of neuropathic pain: Evidence-based recommendations
    Source: Pain. 2007;132:237–251.
  • Author: Jung BF, Ahrendt GM, Oaklander AL, Dworkin RH
    Title: Neuropathic pain following breast cancer surgery: proposed classification and research update
    Source: Pain. 2003;104:1-13.
  • Author: Horowitz SH
    Title: Venipuncture-induced neuropathic pain: the clinical syndrome, with comparisons to experrmental nerve injury models
    Source: Pain. 2001;94:225-229.
  • Author: Livengood JM
    Title: Neuropathic Pain: A “Professional Patient’s” Perspective
    Source: Clin J Pain. 1996;12:90-93.
  • Author: Serpell MG, Neuropathic Pain Study Group
    Title: Gabapentin in neuropathic pain syndromes: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
    Source: Pain. 2002;99:557-566.

Opioids

  • Author: Josh Bloom
    Title: The Opioid Epidemic In 6 Charts Designed To Deceive You
    Source: American Council on Science and Health
  • Author: Jeffrey Fudin
    Title: Is Levorphanol a Better Option thank Methadone?
    Source: PainMedicine2015;16:1673–1679 WileyPeriodicals,Inc.
  • Author: Jeffrey Fudin, Jeffrey Gudin,Srinivas Nalamachu
    Title: Levorphanol Use: Past, Present and Future
    Source: SSN: 0032-5481 (Print) 1941-9260 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ipgm20
  • Authors: Jeffrey Fudin, PharmD, DAIPM, FCCP, FASHP, Mena Raouf, PharmD, Erica L. Wegrzyn, BS, PharmD
    Title: Opioid Dosing Policy: Pharmacological Considerations Regarding Equianalgesic Dosing
    Source: A White Paper from the Academy of Integrative Pain Management
  • Authors: Alan L. Gordon, MD, Seamus L. Connolly, DO
    Title: Treating Pain in an Established Patient: Sifting Through the Guidelines
    Source: October 2017 RHODE Island Medical Journal
  • Author: Jay Joshi, MD
    Title: Don’t blame opioids for the opioid crisis—doctors must become better at pain management
    Source: Smart Medicine
  • Author: Stephen Martin, MD, EdM
    Title: “Opioid painkillers cause chronic pain” stories leave physician reader in agony
    Source: Health New Review
  • Author: Baraa O. Tayeb, MD, Ana E. Barreiro, MPH, Ylisabyth S. Bradshaw, DO, MS, Kenneth K. H. Chui, PhD,Daniel B. Carr, AM, MD, DABPM,
    FFPMANZCA (Hon)
    Title: Durations of Opioid, Nonopioid Drug, and Behavioral Clinical Trials for Chronic Pain: Adequate or Inadequate?
    Source: Pain Medicine 2016; 17: 2036–2046 doi: 10.1093/pm/pnw245
  • Author: Forest Tennant, MD, DrPH
    Title: A Plea for Proper Opioid Tapering
    Source: Practical Pain Management

Physical and Occupational Therapy Treatment for CRPS

  • Authors: Hendrik van de Meenta, Margreet Oerlemans, Almar Bruggeman, Frank Klomp, Robert van Dongen, Rob Oostendorp, Jan Paul Frölke
    Title: Safety of “pain exposure” physical therapy in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1
    Source: PAIN® 152(2011)1431-1438
  • Authors: Tracey Pons, Edward Shipton, Jonathan Williman and Roger Mulder
    Title: Physiotherapy Interventions and the Outcomes for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) Type I on the South Island of New Zealand A Longitudinal, Prospective Case Series
    Source: The Open Pain Journal, EOI: 10.2174/1876386301710010005
  • Authors: Smart KM, Wand BM, O’Connell NE
    Title: Physiotherapy for pain and disability in adults with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) types I and II (Review)
    Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD010853. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010853.pub2.

RSDSA Funded Research

Final Progress Report: RSDSA and RSDhope Grant
(Related: RSDSA and American RSDHope Award Research Grant to the Children’s Hospital of Los Angeles)

Rachel Tobias Young Investigator Award goes to Drs. Oaklander and Lee

More Research


Research

  • LETTER TO THE EDITOR
    Title: Dysfunctional Relationship Between the Prefrontal Cortex and Amygdala for Explaining Posttraumatic CRPS Syndrome
    Source: Pain Medicine 2016; 0: 1-4 doi: 10.1093/pm/pnv091
  • Title: Fishing for answers in an ocean of data: The potential for big data analytics to enhance our knowledge of the Complex regional pain syndromes
    Source: Journal of clinical anesthesia 40 (2017) 117-118
  • Author: Abe Y, Iba K, Takada J, Wada T, Yamashita T
    Title: Improvement of pain and regional osteoporotic changes in the foot and ankle bylow-dose bisphosphonate therapy for complex regional pain syndrome type I: a case series
    Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports. 2011, 5:349
  • Author: Ackerman WE, Zhang JM
    Title: Efficacy of Stellate Ganglion Blockade for the Management of Type 1 Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
    Source: South Med J. 2006;99:1084-1088.
  • Title: Study reveals new insights into rare chronic pain condition
    Source: Provided by University of Bath
  • Authors: Janet H. Bultitude, Ian Walker, and Charles Spence
    Title: Space-based bias of covert visual attention in complex regional pain syndrome
    Source: BRAIN 2017 doi: 10.1093/BRAIN/AWX152
  • Authors: Annemerle Beerthuizena, Dirk L. Stronks, Adriaan van’t Spijker, Ameeta Yaksh, Barbara M. Hanraets, Jan Klein, Frank J.P.M. Huygen
    Title: Demographic and medical parameters in the development of complex regional pain syndrome type 1(CRPS1): prospective study on 596 patients with a fracture
    Source: A. Beerthuizenetal./PAIN®153(2012)1187_1192
  • Author: Birklein F, Schmelz M
    Title: Neuropeptides, neurogenic inflammation and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)
    Source: Neurosci Letters. 2008;437:199-202.
  • Author: Blaes F, Tschernatsch M, Braeu ME, et al
    Title: Autoimmunity in Complex-Regional Pain Syndrome
    Source: Ann NY Acad Sci. 2007;1107: 168-173.
  • Author: Brunner F, Bachmann LM, Weber U, et al
    Title: Complex regional pain syndrome 1 – the Swiss cohort study
    Source: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2008;9:92.
  • Author: Chelimsky G, Madan S, Alshekhlee A, Heller E, McNeeley K, Chelimsky T
    Title: A Comparison of Dysautonomias Comorbid with Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome and withMigraine
    Source:Gastroenterology Research and Practice. 2009, Article ID 701019; 1-6.
  • Author: Ching DWT, McClintock A, Beswick F
    Title: Successful Treatment With Low-Dose thalidomide in a Patient With Both Behcet’s Disease and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I
    Source: J Clin Rheumatol. 2003;9:96-98.
  • Author: de Mos, Laferriere A, Millecamps M, et al
    Title: Role of NFkB in an Animal Model of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome–type I (CRPS-I)
    Source: J Pain. 2009;10(11):1161-1169
  • Authors: Luis Del Valle, Robert J. Schwartzman, Guillermo Alexander
    Title: Spinal cord histopathological alterations in a patient with longstanding complex regional pain syndrome
    Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 23 (2009) 85-91
  • Author: Devine KA, Kong SC, Neilly JBJ, Forrest EH
    Title: An Unusual Presentation of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I
    Source: Scottish Med J. 2007;52(4):54.
  • Author: Eberle T, Doganci B, Kramer HH, et al
    Title: Warm and cold complex regional pain syndromes: Differences beyond skin temperature?
    Source: Neurology. 2009;72:505-512.
  • Author: Eisenberg E, Shtahl S, Geller R, et al
    Title: Serum and salivary oxidative analysis in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
    Source: Pain. 2008;138:226–232.
  • Author:  Fonoff E, Hamani C, Ciami de Andrade D, Yent L, Marcolin AM, Teixeira ML
    Title: Pain Relief and Functional Recovery in Patients with Complex Regional Pain
    Syndrome after Motor Cortex Stimulation
    Source:Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2011;89:167–172
  • Author: Geha PY, Baliki MN, Harden RN, Bauer WR, Parrish TB, Apkarian AV
    Title: The Brain in Chronic CRPS Pain: Abnormal Gray-White Matter Interactions in Emotional and Autonomic Regions
    Source: Neuron. 2008;60:570-581.
  • Author: Goebel A, Stock M, Deacon R, Sprotte G, Vincent A
    Title: Intravenous Immunoglobulin Response and Evidence for Pathogenic Antibodies in a Case of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
    Source: Ann Neurol. 2005;57(3):463-464.
  • Author: Goldstein DS, Tack C, Li ST
    Title: Sympathetic Innervation and Function in Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy
    Source: Ann Neurol. 2000;48:49-59.
  • Author: Granberg V. Peakmkan M, Ejskjaer J, Sundkvist G
    Title: Autoantibodies to Autonomic Nerves Associated With Cardiac and Peripheral Autonomic Neuropathy
    Source: Diabetes Care. 2005; 28;1959-1964.
  • Authors: Shaness A. Grenald, Timothy M. Doyle, Hong Zhang, lauren M. Slosky, Zhoumou Chen, Tally M. Largent-Milnes, Sarah Spiegel, Todd W. Vanderah, and Daniela Salvemini
    Title: Tareting the S1P/S1PR1 axis mitigates cancer-induced bone pain and neuroinflammation
    Source: International Association for the Study of Pain DOI: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000965
  • Author: Huge V, Lauchart M, Forderreuther S, et al
    Title: Interaction of Hyperalgesia and Sensory Loss in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I (CRPS I)
    Source: PLoS ONE. 3(7):e2742.
  • Author: Kharkar, Siddharth, MD, Venkatesh, Yedatore S., MD, Grothusen, John R. PhD, Rojas, Luisa, MD, and Schwartzman, Robert J., MD
    Title: Skin Biopsy in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Case Series and Literature Review
    Source: Pain Physician: May/June 2012; 15:255-266
  • Author: Kopsky DJ, Keppel Hesselink JM
    Title: Multimodal Stepped Care Approach Involving Topical Analgesics for Severe Intractable Neuropathic Pain in CRPS Type 1: A Case Report
    Source: Case Reports in Medicine. 2011, Hindawi Publishing Co.
  • Author: Kohr D, Tschernatsch M, Schmitz K et al
    Title: Autoantibodies in complex regional pain syndrome bind
    to a differentiation-dependent neuronal surface autoantigen
    Source: Pain. 2009;246-251.
  • Author: Leong L, Ninnis J, Slatkin N, et al
    Title: Evaluating the Impact of Pain Management (PM) Education
    on Physician Practice Patterns—A Continuing Medical
    Education (CME) Outcomes Study
    Source: J Canc Educ. 2010;25:224–228.
  • Author: Li WW, Tian-Zhi G, Liang D, et al
    Title: The NALP1 inflammasome controls cytokine production and nociception in a rat fracture model of complex regional pain syndrome
    Source: Pain. 2009;147:277-286.
  • Author: Libon DJ, Schwartzman RJ, Eppig J, et al
    Title: Neuropsychological deficits associated with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
    Source: J Int Neuropsychol Soc. E-pub 2010 Mar 19.
  • Author: Linnman C., Becerra L., Borsook D.
    Title: Inflaming the Brain: CRPS a Model Disease to Understand Neuroimmune Interactions in Chronis Pain
    Source: J Nueroimmune Pharmacol, DOI 10.1007/s11481-012-9422-8
  • Author: Luo J, Ho P, Steinman L, Wyss-Coray T
    Title: Bioluminescence in vivo imaging of autoimmune encephalomyelitis
    predicts disease
    Source: J Neuroinflammation. 2008;5:6
  • Author: Oaklander AL, Rissmiller JG, Gelman LB, Zheng L, Chang Y, Gott R
    Title: Evidence of focal small-fiber axonal degeneration in complex regional pain syndrome-I (reflex sympathetic dystrophy)
    Source: Pain. 2006;120:235-243.
  • Author: Gosuke Oki, Takuro Wada, Kosuke Iba, Hikono Aiki, Kouichi Sasaki, Shin-ichi Imai, Hitoshi Sohma, Kayo Matsumoto, Mami Yamaguchi, Mineko Fujimiya, Toshihiko Yamashita, Yasuo Kokai
    Title: Metallothionein deficiency in the injured peripheral nerves of complex regional pain syndrom as revealed by proteomics
    Source: 2011 International Associations for the Study of Pain. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2011.11.008
  • Author: Pankaj A, Kotwal PP, Mittal R, Deepak KK, Bal CS
    Title: Diagnosis of post-traumatic complex regional pain syndrome of the hand: current role of sympathetic skin response and three-phase bone scintigraphy
    Source: J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong). 2006;14(3):284-290.
  • Author: Luke Parkitny, james H. McAuley, Flavia Di Piertro, Et al.
    Title: Inflammation in CRPS: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Source: Neurology 2013;80;106
    DOI 10.1212/WNL.0b013e31827b1aa1
  • Author: Peek DFPM, van Zundert J
    Title: Letters to the Editor: The Vitamin C Controversy
    Source: Clin J Pain. 2010;26(6):551-552.
  • Authors: Erin R. Reichenberger, Guillermo M. lexander, Marielle J. Perreault, Jacob A. Russell, Robert J. Schwartzman, Uri Hershberg, Gail Rosend
    Title: Establishing a relationship between bacteria in the human gut and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
    Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 29 (2013) 62-69
  • Author: van Rijn MA, Marinus J, Putter H, Bosselaar SRJ, Moseley GL, van Hilten JJ
    Title: Spreading of complex regional pain syndrome: not a random
    process
    Source: J Neural Transm.2011. Published online 18 February 2011.
  • Author: Schasfoort FC, Bussmann JBJ, Krijnen HJ, Stam HJ
    Title: Upper limb activity over time in compelx regional pain syndrome type 1 as objectively measured with an upper limb-activity monitor: An explorative multiple case study
    Source: Euro J Pain. 2006;10;31-39.
  • Author: Smith HS
    Title: The Role of Genomic Oxidative-Reductive Balance as Predictor of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Development: A Novel Theory
    Source:Pain Physician. 2010;13:79-90.
  • Author: Smith JA, Karalis DG. Rosso AL, Grothusen JR, Hessen SE, Schwartzman RJ
    Title:Syncope in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
    Source: Clin Cardiology. 2011;34:222-225.
  • Author: Taha, Rame, MD, Blaise, Gilbert A., MD
    Title: Update on the pathogenesis of complex regional pain syndrome: Role of oxidative stress
    Source:Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, 07/17/2012
  • Author: Tan ECT, Janssen AJM, Roestenberg P, van den Heuvel LP, Goris RJA, and Rodenburg RJT
    Title: Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Muscle Tissue of Complex Regional pain syndrome type I patients
    Source: Eur J Pain. 2011.
  • Authors: Chaoliang Tang, Juan Li, Wai Lycia Tai, Weifeng Yao, Bo Zhao, Junmou Hong, Si Shi, Song Wang, Zhongyuan Xia
    Title: Sex differences in complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) in mice
    Source: Journar of pain Research 2017:10 1811-1819
  • Author: Various
    Title: C4. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: From Human Model to the Clinic
    Source: Eur J Pain. 2010;4:S1-S46.
  • Author: van der Laan L, Kapitein PJC, Oyen WJG, Verhofstad AAJ, Hendriks T, Goris RJA
    Title: A Novel Animal Model to Evaluate Oxygen Derived Free Radical Damage in Soft Tissue
    Source: Free Radical Res.1997;26:363-372.
  • Author: Walton KD, Dubois M, Llinas RR
    Title: Abnormal thalamocortical activity in patients with Complex Regional Pain
    Syndrome (CRPS) Type I
    Source: Pain. 2010; In press.
  • Author: Wuppenhorst N, Maier C, Frettloh J, Pennekamp W, Nicolas V
    Title: Sensitivity and Specificity of 3-phase Bone Scintigraphy in the Diagnosis of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome of the Upper Extremity
    Source: Clin J Pain. 2010;26:182-189.

Somatoform / Conversion Disorder

  • Author: Richard Barnum
    Title: Problems with diagnosing Conversion Disorder in response to variable and unusual symptoms
    Source: Dove Press journal: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
  • Author: Glick, Renee J., Chopra, Pradeep, MD, and Richardi, Toni, MS
    Title: Crazy Pains? Exploring the Misdiagnoses of CRPS: Understanding Conversion Disorder
    Source: RSDSA Review, 2012; Vol 25, Issue 3
  • Author: Cooper, Mark S., Clark, Vincent P. Clark
    Title: Neuroinflammation, Neuroautoimmunity, and the Co-Morbidities of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
    Source: J Neuroimmune Pharmacol DOI 10.1007/s11481-012-9392-x
  • Author: Hill, Renee J., Chopra, Pradeep, Richardi, Toni
    Title: Rethinking the Psychogenic Model of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Somatoform Disorders
    Source: Anesth Pain.2012;2(2):in press. DOI:10.5812/aapm.7282
  • Author: Benjamin J. Newton, BSc (Hons), Jane L. Southall, RGN, BSc (Hons), DMS, Jon H. Raphael, MSc, MD, Robert L. Ashford,PhD, MMedSc, MA, Karen LeMarchand, BSc (Hons), MSc, Cpsychol
    Title: A Narrative Review of the Impact of Disbelief in Chronic Pain
    Source: Pain Manag Nurs. 2013;14(3):161-171
  • Spinal Cord Stimulation and Neuromodulation
  • Title:  Clinical Highlights: Accurate Study: A Prospective, Randomized, Multi-Center, Controlled Clinical Trial to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of the Axium Neurostimulator System in the Treatment of Chronic Intractable Pain
  • Author: Bankhead C
    Title: AAPM: Spine Stimulation Leads to Durable Pain Relief
    Source: MedPage Today. E-pub 7 Feb 2010.
  • Author: Bennett DS, Alo KM, Oakley J, Feler CA
    Title: Spinal Cord Stimulation for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I [RSD]: a Retrospective Nulticenter Experience from 1995 to 1998 of 101 patients
    Source: Neuromodulation. 1999;2:202-210.
  • Author: Deer T
    Title: Spinal Cord Stimulation for the Treatment of Chronic Pain
    Source: Pain Med News. July 2010.
  • Author: FROM THE EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
    Title: Evidence-Based Review of Neuromodulation for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Conflict Between Faith and Science?
    Source: Neuromodulation 2012;15:501-506 -2012International Neuromodulation Society
  • Author: Feler CA, Whitworth LA, Fernandez J
    Title: Sacral neuromodulation for chronic pain conditions
    Source: Anesthesiol Clin N Am. 2003;21:785-795.
  • Author: José W. Geurts, MSc, Helsin Smith, MD, Ph.D., Marius A. Kemler, MD, Ph.D., Florian Brunner, MD, Ph.D., Alfons G. H. Kessels, MD, Msc, Maarten van Kleef, MD, Ph.D.
    Title: Spinal Cord Stimulation for Complex regional Pain syndrome Type I: A prospective Cohort Study with long-term Follow-up
    Source: 2013 International Neuromodulation Society (onlinelibrary.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1111/ner.12024
  • Author: Giller CA
    Title: The Neurosurgical Treatment of Pain
    Source: Arch Neurol. 2003;60:1537-1540.
  • Author: Grabow TS, Tella PK, Raja SN
    Title: Spinal Cord Stimulation for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: An Evidence-Based Medicine Review of the Literature
    Source: Clin J Pain. 2003;19:371-383.
  • Author: Hanks DT
    Title: Spinal Cord Stimulation for Chronic Pain: Observations from over 20 years’ experience
    Source: RSDSA Review. 2007;20(1):11,14.
  • Author: Harke H, Gretenkort P, Ladleif HU, Rahman S
    Title: Spinal cord stimulation in sympathetically maintained complex regional pain syndrome type I with severe disability. A prospective clinical study
    Source: Eur J Pain. 2005;9(4):363-373
  • Authors: Young Jeon, Jin Woo Shin, Doo Hwan Kim, Jeong Hun Suh, and Jeong Gill Leem
    Title: 2017-rsdsa-community-update-Fall-Edition Spinal cord stimulator malfunction caused by radiofrequency neuroablation
    Source: Korean J Anesthesiol 2010 December 59(Suppl): S226-S228 DOI: 10.4097/kjae.2010.59.S.S226
  • Author: Kemler MS, Barendse GAM, van Kleef M, et al
    Title: Spinal Cord Stimulation in Patients with Chronic Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy
    Source: N Engl J Med. 2000;343:618-624.
  • Author: Kemler MA, de Vet HCW, Barendse GAM, van den Wildenberg FAJM, van Kleef M
    Title: Effect of spinal cord stimulation for chronic complex regional pain syndrome Type I: five-year final follow-up of patients in a randomized trial
    Source: J Neurosurg. 2008;108:292-298.
  • Author: Kemler MA, de Vet HCW, Barendse GAM, van den Wildenberg FAJM, van Kleef M
    Title: The Effect of Spinal Cord Stimualtion in Patients with Chronic Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy: Two Years’ Follow-up of the Randomized Controlled Trial
    Source: Ann Neurol. 2004;55:13-18.
  • Author: Mekhail NA, Mathews M, Bageeb F, Guirguis M, Mekhail MN, Cheng J
    Title:Retrospective Review of 707 Cases of Spinal Cord Stimulation: Indications and Complications
    Source: Pain Practice. 2011;2:148-153.
  • Author: Olsson GL, Meyerson BA, Linderoth B
    Title: Spinal cord stimulation in adolescents with complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I)
    Source: Euro J Pain. 2008;12:53-59.
  • Authors: Lawrence Poree, MD, MPH, PhD; Elliot Krames, MD; Jason Pope, MD; Timothy R. Deer, MD; Robert Levy, MD, PhD; Louise Schultz, BS
    Title: Spinal Cord Stimulation as Treatment for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Should Be Considered Earlier Than Last Resort Therapy
    Source: Neuromodulation 2013; 16: 125-141
  • Author: Prager JP
    Title: Spinal Cord Stimulation Q & A
    Source: RSDSA Review. 2007;20(1):12-13.
  • Author: Rijkers K, van Aalst J, Kurt E, et al
    Title: Effect of spinal cord stimulation in Type I complex regional pain syndrome with 2 rare severe cutaneous manifestations
    Source: J Neurosurg. 2009;110:274-278.
  • Author: Ruamwijitphong W
    Title: Spinal cord stimulation for injured soldiers with complex regional pain syndrome
    Source: The Nurse Practitioner. 2010;35(8):39-43.
  • Author: Stanton-Hicks M
    Title: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Manifestations and the Role of Neurostimulation in Its Management
    Source: J Pain Symptom Manage. 2006;31:S20-S24.
  • Author: Taylor RS, van Buyten J, Buchser E
    Title: Spinal cord stimualtion for complex regional pain syndrome: A systematic review of the clinical and cost-effectiveness literature and assessment of prognostic factors
    Source: Euro J Pain. 2006;10:91-101.
  • Author: Frank van Eijs, MD, Jos. W. Geurts, MSc, Jan VanZundert, MD,PhD, Catharina G. Faber, MD, PhD, Alfons G. H. Kessels,MD,MSc, Elbert A. J. Joosten,PhD, Maartenvan Kleef, MD, PhD
    Title:Spinal Cord Stimulation in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I of Less than 12-Month Duration
    Source: Neuromodulation2012;15:144-150
  • Author: van Eijs, MD, Frank, Geurts, MSc, Jose W., Van Zundert, MD, PhD, Jan, Faber, MD, PhD, Catharina G., Kessels, MD, MSc, Alfons G. H., Joosten, PhD, Elbert A.J., van Kleef, MD, PhD, Maarten
    Title:Spinal Cord Stimulation in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 of Less Than 12-Month Duration
    Source: Neuromodulation 2012; 15: 144-150
  • Author: van Eijs, Smits H, Geurts JW, et al
    Title: Brush-evoked allodynia predicts outcome of spinal cord stimulation in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1
    Source: Eur J Pain. 2010;14:164-169.
  • Author: Velasco F, Carrillo-Ruiz JD, Castro G, et al
    Title: Motor cortex electrical stimulation applied to patients with complex regional
    pain syndrome
    Source: Pain. 2009; In press.
  • Author: Verdolin MH, Stedje-Larsen ET, Hickey AH
    Title: Ten Consecutive Cases of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome of Less than 12 Months Duration in Active Duty United States Military Personnel Treated with Spinal Cord Stimulation
    Source: Anesthesia Analgesia. 2007;104(6):1557.
  • Author: Wilner AN
    Title: Timing of Spinal Cord Stimulation Use May Affect Efficacy
    Source: Pain Med News. 2006;6:3.

Suicide and Chronic Pain

  • Authors: Dr. Steven Schlozman and Michele Tedder
    Title: Suicide and Depression Awareness for Students
    People contemplating suicide or experiencing the depths of a severe depression might not be able to see any other way out of their pain than ending their lives. From teenagers to college students, LGBT to the elderly, people struggling with depression and suicidal thoughts need options, reassurance, hope and help.
  • Authors: Afton L. Hassett & Jordan K. Aquino & Mark A. Ilgen
    Title: The Risk of Suicide Mortality in Chronic Pain Patients
    Source: Curr Pain Headache Rep (2014) 18:436 DOI 10.1007/s11916-014-0436-1
  • Authors: Do-Hyeong Lee,Eun Chung Noh,Yong Chul Kim,Jae Yeon Hwang, Sung Nyun Kim, Joon Hwan Jang,Min Soo Byun,and Do-Hyung Kang
    Title: Risk Factors for Suicidal Ideation among Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
    Source: http://dx.doi.org/10.4306/pi.2014.11.1.32

Treatment

  • Title: Morphine and Memantine Treatment of Long-Standing Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
    Source: Pain Medicine 2012; 13: 357–358 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • Author: Ackerman, III, MD, William E., Zhang, MSc, MD, Jun-Ming
    Title: Efficacy of Stellate Ganglion Blockade for the Management of type 1 Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
    Source: Southern Medical Journal, Vol. 99, Number 10, October 2006
  • Authors: S Adami, V Fossaluzza, D Gatti, E Fracassi, V Braga
    Title: Bisphosphonate therapy of reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome
    Source: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 1997;56:201-204
  • Author: Arden RL, Bahu SJ, Zuazu MS, Berguer R
    Title: Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy of the Face: Current Treatment Recommendations
    Source: Laryngoscope. 1998;108:437-442
  • Authors: Enrique Aradillas, MD, Robert J. Schwartzman, MD, John R. Grothusen, PhD, Andreas Goebel, MD, PhD, and Guillermo M. Alexander PhD
    Title: Plasma Exchange Therapy in Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
    Source: Pain Physician 2015; 18:383-394 – ISSN 1533-3159
  • Author: Bandyk DF, Johnson BL, Kirkpatrick AF, et al
    Title: Surgical Sympathectomy for Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndromes
    Source: Paper presented at the 55th Annual Meeting of the Society for Vascular Surgery, Baltimore, MD. June 10-11, 2001.
  • Author: Bernateck M, Rolke R, Birklein F, Treede RD, Fink M, Karst M
    Title: Successful Intravenous Regional Block with Low-Dose Tumor Necrosis Factor-[Alpha] Antibody Infliximab for Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1
    Source: Int Anesth Res Soc. 2007;105(4):1148-1151.
  • Author: Breuer B, Pappagallo M, Ongseng, Chen CI, Goldfarb R
    Title: An Open-label Pilot Trial of Ibandronate for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
    Source: Clin J Pain. 2008;24:685-689.
  • Author: Brunner F, Schmid A, Kissling R, Held U, Bachmann LM
    Title: Bisphosphonates for the therapy of complex regional pain syndrome I—Systematic review
    Source: Eur J Pain. 2009;13:17-21.
  • Author: Carlson LK and Watson HK
    Title: Treatment of Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Using the Stress-Loading Program
    Source: J Hand Ther. 1988;149-154.
  • Author: Ian Carroll, MD, MS , J. David Clark, MD, PhD , and Sean Mackey, MD, PhD
    Title: Sympathetic Block with Botulinum Toxin to Treat Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
    Source: Neurol. 2009 March; 65(3): 348-351. doi:10.1002/ana.21601
  • Author: Carroll Ian, Clark JD, Mackey S
    Title: Sympathetic Block with Botulinum Toxin to Treat Complex Regional Pain
    Syndrome
    Source: Ann Neurol. 2009;65:348-351M
  • Authors: Krishnan Chakravarthy, Hira Chaudhry, Kayod Williams, Paul J. Christo
    Title: Review of the Uses of Vagal Nerve Stimulation in Chronic Pain Management
    Source: Curr Pain headache Rep (2015) 19: 54 DOI 10.1007/s11916-015-0528-6
  • Authors: Chinmoy Roy and Nilay Chatterjee
    Title: Radiofrequency ablation of stellate ganglion in a patient with complex regional pain syndrome
    Source: Saudi J Anaesth. 2014 Jul-Sep; 8(3): 408-411
  • Author: Tae Hwan Cho, Kyeong Mee Park
    Title: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 Relieved by Acupuncture Point Injections with Placental Extract
    Source: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies (2014)
  • Author: Collins S, Zuurmond WWA, de Lange JJ, van Hilten BJ, Perez RSGM
    Title: Intravenous Magnesium for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 (CRPS 1) Patients: A Pilot Study
    Source: Pain Medicine. 2009;10(5):930-940.
  • Author: Cooper DE, DeLee JC, Ramamurthy S
    Title: Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy of the Knee: Treatment using continuous epidural anesthesia
    Source: J Bone Joint Surg. 1989;71:365-369.
  • Author: Robert H. Dworkin, Alec B. O’Connor, Joel Kent, Sean C. Mackey, Srinivasa N. Raja, Brett R. Stacey, Robert M. Levy, Miroslav Backonja, Ralf Baron, Henning Harke, John D. Loeser, Rolf-Detlef Treede, Dennis C. Turk, Christopher D. Wells
    Title: Interventional management of neuropathic pain: NeuPSIG recommendations
    Source: NeuPSIG recommendations, PAIN (2013), doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2013.06.004
  • Author: Deer TR, Smith HS, Cousins M, et al
    Title: Consensus Guidelines for the Selection and Implantation of Patients With Noncancer Pain for Intrathecal Drug Delivery
    Source: Pain Physician. 2010;13:E175-E213.
  • Author: Dirckx, Maaik, MD, Stronks, Dirk L., PhD, Groeneweg, George, PT, PhD, and Huygen Frank J. P. M., MD, PhD
    Title: Effect of Immunomodulating Medications in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome – A Systematic Review
    Source: Clin J Pain _ Volume 28, Number 4, May 2012
  • Author:  van Eijs F, Feurts J, van Kleef M, et al
    Title: Predictors of Pain Relieving Response to Sympathetic Blockade in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1
    Source: Anesthesiology. 2012;116:113-21.
  • Authors: Foad Elahi and Chandan G. Reddy
    Title: Venipuncture-Induced Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literatur
    Source: Hindawi Publishing Corporation – Case Reports in Medicine
    Volume 2014, Article ID 613921, 3 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/613921
  • Author: Fischer SGL, Zuurmond WWA, Birklein F, Loer SA, Perez RSGM
    Title: Anti-inflammatory Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
    Source: Pain. 2010;151:251-256.
  • Author: Fukui S, Shigemori S, Yoshimura A, Nosaka S
    Title: Chronic Pain with Beneficial Response to Electroconvulsive Therapy and Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Changes Assesed by Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography
    Source: Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2002;27(2):211-213.
  • Authors: Mark Gaertner, MD, Jiang-Ti Kong, MD, Kristen H. Scherrer, PhD, Alyssa Foote, BS, Sean Mackey, MD, PhD, Kevin A. Johnson, PhD, RN
    Title: Advancing Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Methods for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: An Open-Label Study of Paired Theta Burst and High-Frequency Stimulation
    Source: International Neuromodulation Society DOI: 10.111/ner.12760
  • Author: Ghostine SY, Comair YG, Turner DM, Kassell NF, Azar, CG
    Title: Phenoxybenzamine in the Treatment of Causalgia
    Source: J Neurosurg. 1984;60:12631268.
  • Author: Goebel A, Baranowski A, Maurer K, Ghial A, McCabe C, Ambler G
    Title: Intravenous Immunoglobulin Treatment of the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Randomized Trial
    Source: Ann Intern Med. 2010;152:152-158.
  • Author: Valeo T
    Title: IVIG Shown to Relieve Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
    But Study Has Limitations, Experts Say
    Source: Neurology Today. 2010 March 14.
  • Author: Goodin BR, Ness TJ, Robbins MT
    Title: Oxytocin – a multifunctional analgesic for chronic deep tissue pain.
    Source: Curr Pharm Des. 2015;21(7):906-13.
  • Authors: J. George Groeneweg, PT, Frank J.P.M. Huygen, MD, PhD, Sjoerd P. Niehof, PhD, Feikje Wesseldijk, MD, johannes J.J. Bussmann, PT, PhD, Fabienne C. Schasfoort, PT, PhD, dirk L. Stronks, PhD, and Freek J. Zijlstra, PhD
    Title: No Recovery of Cold Complex Regional Pain Syndrome After Transdermal Isosorbide Dinitrate: A Small Controlled Trial
    Source: doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2008.10.006
  • Author: Groeneweg G, Huygen FJPM, Coderre TJ, Zijlstra FJ
    Title: Regulation of peripheral blood flow in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: clinical implication for symptomatic relief and pain management
    Source: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2009;10(116).
  • Author: Groeneweg G, Niehof S, Wesseldijk F, Huygen FJPM, Zijlstra FJ
    Title: Vasodilative Effect of Isosorbide Dinitrate Ointment in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1
    Source: Clin J Pain. 2008;24(1):89-92.
  • Author: Gustin SM, Schwarz A, Birbaumer N, et al
    Title: NMDA-receptor antagonist and morphine decrease CRPS-pain and cerebral pain representation
    Source: Pain. 2010;In press.
  • Authors: Osman Hakan Gunduz, Ozge Kenis-Coskun
    Title: Ganglion blocks as a treatment of pain: current perspectives
    Source: Journal of Pain Research
  • Author: LTC Dean H. Hommer, MC USA
    Title: Chinese Scalp Acupuncture Relieves Pain and Restores Function in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
    Source: MILITARY MEDICINE, 177, 10:1231, 2012
  • Authors: Hooshang Hooshmand, MD, Masood Hashmi, MD, and Eric M. Phillips
    Title: Cryotherapy Can Cause Permanent Nerve Damage: A Case Report
    Source: AJPM Vol. 14 No. 2 April 2004
  • Authors: Adrian Kastler & Sebastien Aubry & Nicolas Sailley & Demosthene Michalakis & Gaye Siliman & Guillaume Gory & Jean-Louis Lajoie & Bruno Kastler
    Title: CT-guided stellate ganglion blockade vs. radiofrequency neurolysis in the management of refractory type I complex regional pain syndrome of the upper limb
    Source: Eur Radiol (2013) 23:1316-1322 DOI 10.1007/s00330-012-2704-y
  • Authors: J. M. Keppel Hesselink, Tineke deBoer, and Renger F. Witkamp
    Title: Palmitoylethanolamide: A Natural Body-Own Anti-Inflammatory Agent, Effective and Safe against Influenzaand Common Cold
    Source: Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Inflammation Volume 2013, Article ID 151028, 8 pages
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    Title: Therapeutic utility of palmitoylethanolamide in the treatment of neuropathic pain associated with various pathological conditions: a case series
    Source:Journal of Pain Research 2012:5 437-442
  • Author: Hesselink JMK, Kopsky DJ
    Title: Enhancing acupuncture by low dose naltrexone
    Source: aim.bmj.com
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    Title: Government Regulatory Influences on Opioid Prescribing and Their Impact on the Treatment of Nonmalignant Origin
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  • Author: Hogan CJ, Hurwitz SR
    Title:

Abstract

Objective

This systematic review aims to examine the available literature and to synthesize published data concerning the treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) with ketamine.

Methods

The search was conducted utilizing the databases Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials. All relevant articles were systematically reviewed.

Results

The search yielded 262 articles, 45 of which met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Of those included, 6 were reviews, 5 were randomized placebo-controlled trials, 13 were observational studies, and 21 were case reports.

Conclusion

There is no high quality evidence available evaluating the efficacy of ketamine for CRPS and all manuscripts examined in this review were of moderate to low quality. Therefore, we conclude there is currently only weak evidence supporting the efficacy of ketamine for CRPS, yet there is clearly a rationale for definitive study.

Ketamine, Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, Analgesic, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Antagonists

Introduction

Ever since its introduction into human clinical anesthesia, ketamine has had a controversial history. Domino first introduced ketamine in the literature 50 years ago as a “dissociative anesthetic” producing potent analgesia without loss of consciousness . After Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in 1970, it was first used by forward medical units in the US/Vietnam war and is still used as a “battlefield anesthetic” . It was used in psychiatric research and “recreationally” by academics in the 70s . It is commonly used in the initiation and maintenance of general anesthesia, and is now more frequently used in intensive care, emergency medicine, battlefield medicine, treatment of certain psychiatric conditions, migraine, and pediatric procedures. It is also a drug of abuse, called “special K” on the street .

Ketamine (2,2 Chlorophenyl 2 methylamino cyclohexanone) is predominantly a N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, but also at high dose has monamine, muscarinic, mu 2 opioid, and voltage-gated calcium effects . It is also considered to have effects on immune function . It exists in two optimal isomers (S(+) and R(−) ketamine) with similar pharmacokinetic profiles. S(+) ketamine has a higher affinity for the receptor, and as a result it is the more physiologically active enantiomenter. Ketamine has been formulated for oral, parenteral (SQ, IM, and IV), topical, intranasal, intrathecal, and intrarectal use .

In 1987, Davis and Lodge found that NMDA receptors were involved with the wind-up response to repeated noxious stimulation . It is now accepted that glutamate is involved in acute and chronic pain pathways and that activation of these pathways leads to the activity at the NMDA receptor. This contributes to increased excitatory transmission along afferent pain pathways in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, and accentuates the responsiveness of nociceptive neurons, (or amplifies the pain signal); a phenomenon known as central sensitization .

This discovery led researchers to evaluate the efficacy of NMDA antagonists as a treatment option for pain. The first clinical report of ketamine use for pain was in 1989 . Since that time, ketamine has established a place in the perioperative management of acute pain, where it has been shown to be effective in reducing morphine requirements in the first 24 hours after surgery . Ketamine has also shown short term efficacy in treating phantom limb pain and has recently shown antidepressant effects . There are many case series and retrospective reports, and a few randomized control trials, which suggest ketamine may prove useful for chronic pain syndromes that involve central sensitization, including postherpetic neuralgia, migraine, burns, fibromyalgia, neuropathies, and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) .

The Budapest consensus group defined CRPS as “a syndrome characterized by a continuing (spontaneous and/or evoked) regional pain that is seemingly disproportionate in time or degree to the usual course of any known trauma or other lesion. The pain is regional (not in a specific nerve territory or dermatome) and usually has a distal predominance of abnormal sensory, motor, sudomotor, vasomotor, edema and/or trophic findings. The syndrome shows variable progression over time” . It can occur after a noxious event, or brain or spinal cord injury and it has a reported incidence rate of from 5.46 to 26.2 per 100,000 persons The pathophysiology of CRPS is still not fully understood, and is heterogeneous, involving interaction of four statistically distinct sign and symptom factors. One of the hallmarks of CRPS is central sensitization, making NMDA receptor antagonists such as ketamine an attractive potential treatment option .

As it becomes clear that NMDA receptors are likely participant in central sensitization , many believe a safe, tolerable, and effective NMDA antagonist treatment would be an important tool. Unlike opioids used to treat pain, ketamine does not produce respiratory depression. However, ketamine has a range of reported effects in humans including “dissociative” anesthesia, analgesia, elevated blood pressure (as opposed to most anesthetics), and bronchodilitation The desirable effects of ketamine are counterbalanced by side effects such as hallucinogenic and other psychomimetic effects as well as adverse events such as liver injury . There is little high level evidence that ketamine is safe, tolerated, and/or effective in chronic pain conditions in general (level I–II: see Table 0001 ); this article will examine the entire body of literature available to determine the efficacy and safety of ketamine in the specific treatment of CRPS (level I–III evidence will be discussed, and “stand out” level IV evidence will be reported in appendices).

Table 1

Levels of evidence used in this review

Level I: Meta-analysis or systematic reviews 
Level II: One or more well-powered randomized, controlled trials 
Level III: Retrospective studies, open-label trials, pilot studies 
Level IV: Anecdotes, case reports, clinical experience, etc 
Level I: Meta-analysis or systematic reviews 
Level II: One or more well-powered randomized, controlled trials 
Level III: Retrospective studies, open-label trials, pilot studies 
Level IV: Anecdotes, case reports, clinical experience, etc 

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Methods

This review aims to examine the literature and to synthesize the published data concerning the treatment of CRPS with ketamine. We systematically reviewed all relevant articles that provided data on the efficacy and utility of ketamine for CRPS. The search was conducted utilizing the databases Medline (1966–2010), Embase (1980–2010) and the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials and included all relevant articles through January 2014. We utilized 10 different search strategies, including combinations of the following (MeSH) search terms: “ketamine” or its scientific name, “2, 2 Chlorophenyl 2 methylamino cyclohexanone” AND “complex regional pain syndrome,” “reflex sympathetic dystrophy,” “causalgia,” “CRPS,” “RSD” OR “algodystrophy”. Reference lists of articles identified were screened for relevant articles that did not come up in the database search, and recent guidelines were consulted. Data from animal studies, abstracts, letters, “anecdotes” and single case reports were not included.

The methodological strength of each study was classified using a practical, easy-to-use “levels of evidence” scheme modeled after that used by Harden et al. (Table 0001 ) . Clinical trials, prospective, retrospective, and cross-sectional studies were all included in this review. The primary aim is to present a comprehensive and detailed review of all the relevant literature pertaining to the use of ketamine for CRPS. Due to a lack of high quality research in this area, the authors have chosen to include less rigorous preliminary research reports (supplemented by extensive empirical experience) to provide all literature that may be relevant so that the practitioner may better assess and analyze the modality under discussion.

Results

The search yielded 262 articles. The titles, abstracts, and the full text of these were screened by the primary author for relevance to this publication. Twenty-six additional articles were identified by reviewing reference lists and recently published journals. Of these, 6 articles represented Level I evidence of ketamine for CRPS, 5 articles Level II, 13 articles Level III, and 21 articles of Level IV were considered for this review. Only Levels I–III are mentioned in text. Level II, III, and IV evidence is reported in tables in Appendices A, B, and C. The third author screened any of the studies where it was unclear whether they met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and a decision was made by consensus. The screening process is depicted in a flow chart (Figure 0001 ).

Figure 1

Study selection: A summary of the results of our literature searches and the process of inclusion/exclusion of articles.

Figure 1

Study selection: A summary of the results of our literature searches and the process of inclusion/exclusion of articles.

Level I Evidence

Only one systematic review was found specifically for the efficacy and safety of ketamine for patients with CRPS. Azari et al. evaluated 3 randomized, placebo-controlled trials, 7 observational studies, and 9 case studies/reports. The authors concluded that the current level of evidence is 2B (i.e., weak recommendation, moderate-quality evidence in that scheme), stating that “we do not have sufficient evidence to recommend routine use of ketamine in CRPS.” “Although ketamine demonstrates promise for safe and effective use in the treatment of CRPS, the need for large, well designed, randomized controlled trials is evident.”

One Cochrane Review evaluated “interventions for treating pain and disability in adults with complex regional pain syndrome” . The authors evaluated 3 randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCT) and 1 meta-analysis and found “low quality evidence that a course of IV ketamine may be effective for CRPS-related pain. However, the effects did not appear to be sustained beyond 4 to 11 weeks post-treatment and it is also associated with a variety of side effects…While this evidence, arising from 2 small trials (combined n = 79), is by no means conclusive, it does suggest that ketamine, and perhaps other NMDA receptor antagonists, might represent a promising therapy and target for future studies” .

A systematic review of the treatment of CRPS by Cossins et al. indicated “the review found moderate evidence for the efficacy of low-dose IV ketamine infusion in long-standing CRPS” evaluating only 2 RCTs. Cossins et al. also acknowledges that “the interpretation of these results has recently been made more complicated by reports about incidences of liver failure with prolonged or repeated treatment.” .

Several authors have published updated guidelines for the treatment of CRPS. The most recent by Harden et al. comments that ketamine has been “evaluated for neuropathic pain and for CRPS specifically, but toxicity at effective doses has generally been too high…Caution is indicated and independent confirmation of these studies is needed” . The authors do suggest NMDA receptor antagonists for refractory patients with significant allodynia/hyperalgesia. The UK guidelines evaluated only 1 high quality trial and 1 low quality trial and determined that there is “moderate evidence for IV ketamine (at low-dose, 2 trials, 1 days outpatient or 4.5 day continuous)” . Similarly, the Dutch guidelines published in 2010 by Perez et al. rated the evidence for this treatment as “moderate, or Level III.” The authors concluded that there are merely “indications that intravenous administration of a subanesthetic dose of ketamine reduces pain in CRPS-I patients,” but further research is needed .

Other recent reviews report conflicting views of ketamine for CRPS. Goebel states that efficacy of ketamine for CRPS has been demonstrated in his review. Yet, he also indicates that long-term safety or efficacy data are not available and a majority of patients transiently developed either hallucinations or inebriation . Gay's 2013 review considers ketamine an emerging treatment aimed at the etiology . A review by Collins et al (2010) stated no significant effect on pain reduction could be established for ketamine IV in CRPS, but significant effects were noted in postamputation pain. Additional RCTs are needed to make conclusions about the therapeutic potential of NMDA receptor antagonists in neuropathic pain

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